Hiring and Ethical Decision-Making

Employers are also presented with the challenge of hiring workers with similar abilities, expertise and professional experience. The simple distinction between candidates can be created only by determining the ethics of candidates. Ethical candidates are hired to promote the performance of an organization’s level of service. The ethical and behavioral codes on its part assist organizations to boost their operations’ accountability and eligibility.
Chapter 3: Hiring ethical people
Six steps ethics job screening process
. The six-step ethics job screen process offers the best method for establishing the ethics of a job candidate. The first step in the process is the notification of the ethics screening to the candidates. This initial step aims at informing the potential job seekers in the organization regarding their ethics job screens upon which they must be subjected to. The next step is the legal ground rules that seeks to collect an apply information in a manner that seem discriminatory to the job candidates based on factors such as race, religion, color, nationality, disability, age or gender. Behavioral information which is the third stage seeks to review all behavioral information that can be accessed through background checks, resume, integrity tests and reference checks (Collins, 2012, p. 92). Personality traits and related characteristics is the fourth stage that aims at obtaining scores on areas such as social dominance orientation, bullying and organizational citizenship behavior. The fifth stage is the interview questions that seek to interview the job candidates on their possible responses to ethical dilemmas. The final stage is the post-interview tests that incorporate drug and polygraph tests.
The big five personalities
The big five personality dimensions have been applied by many hiring personnel in establishing the overall personality of individuals. The traits include openness, extroversion, agreeableness, neuroticism and conscientiousness. Openness incorporates traits such as being imaginative and insightful. Conscientiousness incorporates being methodic, thorough and organized. Extroversion traits include being talkative, assertive and energetic. Agreeableness includes traits such as being affectionate, sympathetic and kind. Neuroticism traits include being moody or tense. These traits are interesting in the sense that they assists in clearly establishing the likely behavior of individuals and how they will approach diverse situations once they get into the job.
Use of polygraph tests
Polygraphs are mainly applied in the screening for jobs that are under the federal, state and local government agencies. The use of this technique as a lie detector has attracted number of controversies despite the many efforts that have been made towards making it more accurate. A latest form of polygraph test is currently being developed by the brain researchers and it will use functional MRI scanners after establishing a section of the brain in which lying takes place. The brain image will remain consistent provided that the person is speaking the truth. The manner in which the machine operates draws huge interest.
Chapter 4: Codes of ethics and codes of conduct
The difference between codes of ethics and codes of conduct
The two terms have often been mistakenly used interchangeably despite the fact that they are two different unique documents. Code of ethics offers a brief description of the ethical aspirations of the organization while codes of conduct offers more extensive description of the acceptable behaviors that are applicable in specific circumstances in the work place (Collins, 2012, p.79). The codes of ethics may be termed as values statement that incorporates a few general principles that seeks to guide the behavior of an organization and can be indicated in the business card. The principles that are articulated in the code of ethics can offer guidance to organization in situations where the employees are faced with dilemma. Some of the general principles contained in the codes of ethics include showing respect towards employees, customers, suppliers and other stakeholders. A code of conduct is developed by a legal expert who is in a position to offer substance to the brief codes of ethics to make it many pages. A code of conduct is based on the application of code of ethics so as to make it relevant to different circumstances. It lists several laws that are relevant to different situations in the operations of the organization.
Purpose and importance of codes
One of the benefits of the code of ethics is that it offers the initial steps towards formalization of an ethic program. They tend to address the ethical hazards and risks that tend to increase as an organization expands in its complexity. The codes fulfills a number of purposes that include conveying particular sets of values and obligations, demonstrating managerial concern for ethics, positive transformation of the behavior of employees and meeting the legal requirements as well as the trends in the industry (Collins, 2012, p.142). The codes articulate and strengthen moral consensus as opposed to advocating for an individual’s opinions and views. Employees with strong moral identities and convictions are quick to embrace and welcome the codes since they are likely to promote harmony and peaceful coexistence among them. They tend to signal that the employees will be held liable to the ethical choices that they make besides offering additional safeguards to the management from pressures emanating from other employees.
International codes
The global society is highly integrated hence the need to adopt some general accepted codes that can offer guidance to multinationals and other international organizations. The FCPA has tried to create a distinction between a bribe and facilitating payments. A bribe is defined as the provision of monetary incentive to individuals so as to undertake some duty that is against their job description. On the other hand, facilitating payments are legal payments that are made so as to enhance the efficiency of service delivery.
The areas discussed above in the two chapters emerge as the most interesting aspects in regards to efficient operations within organization. Hiring ethical people is key to organizations as that will save them the burden of installing strict control measures that hinder the operations of the employees. The codes of ethic and conduct come in handy when making a distinction between organizations in the same industry.

Collins, D. (2012). Business Ethics: How to Design and Manage Ethical Organizations. USA: Wiley.

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