Cyber bullying has primarily become a significant problem that affects a large number of people, especially teenagers. In today’s highly digitalized world, the growing need to embrace the internet as a medium of social interaction and communication has resulted in this social issue. Cyberbullying has a long history of adverse effects, as shown by a vast body of literature. Without question, the internet has offered people an endless amount of opportunities for social connections, education, and sports, all of which are readily available online. Nonetheless, the internet has been shown to have several adverse effects, including cyberbullying, leading to violence. As a result, to assist readers, this paper will include an annotation bibliography on journal papers that look into the problem of cyberbullying to help in understanding the extent of the issue to the society.

Annotated Bibliography

Barlett, C., Chamberlin, K., & Witkower, Z. (2016). Predicting cyberbullying perpetration in emerging adults: A theoretical test of the Barlett Gentile Cyberbullying Model. Aggressive Behavior, 43(2), 147-154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.21670

This journal provides a learning-based model theory called “The Barlett and Gentile Cyberbullying Model (BGCM)” which theorizes prediction of cyberbullying perpetration that arise from the adults. The source came from aggressive behavior journal and the authors mention that the attitudes of cyberbullying are likely to form when the online aggressor holds a belief that the online environment permits people to harm others. It argues that the increase in the ease of accessibility and use of internet has substantial implications to the modern communication and thus relevant to the topic. The reliability of the model used to correlate and predict cyberbullying perpetrators gives the study a noteworthy strength. Also, the model’s theoretical context applies to a well-established sociological and communication-based theories that are involved in predicting cyberbullying such as general aggressive model and theory of reasoned action. However, the complexity of the model used makes it difficult to understand on how it predicts cyberbullying perpetrations and thus giving is a weakness.

Bastiaensens, S., Pabian, S., Vandebosch, H., Poels, K., Van Cleemput, K., DeSmet, A., & De Bourdeaudhuij, I. (2015). From Normative Influence to Social Pressure: How Relevant Others Affect Whether Bystanders Join in Cyberbullying. Social Development, 25(1), 193-211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sode.12134

This is a social development journal article whose underlining argument in the study is that cyberbullying is a situation that is inherently social. Moreover, the relevance to the topic is derived from the idea that normative social influence can have a significant influence on the role of adolescent behavior. The findings stipulate correlation between norm friends approving for cyberbullying and joining cyberbullying actions. In fact, the substantial data used to arrive at the conclusion makes it a consistent study for conclusion. The well-organized ideas surrounding the influence of into join the act of cyberbullying helps one to understand how people opt to commit this crime. However, the study failed to address the motives that make one to join cyberbullying. The research would have been improved if it could have highlighted what the cyberbullies gain from the act.

Bauman, S., & Pero, H. (2010). Bullying and Cyberbullying Among Deaf Students and Their Hearing Peers: An Exploratory Study. Journal Of Deaf Studies And Deaf Education, 16(2), 236-253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/deafed/enq043

Bauman and Pero study cyberbullying and bullying in deaf secondary students and their hearing peers. They found a significant correlation between cyber-victimization and cyberbullying among the population. This peer reviewed article form Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education relates to the topic under study because the authors explain cyberbullying as a subset of aggression involving three key characteristics which are “intention to harm, repetition, and the power imbalance between the bullies and victims” (Bauman and Pero, 2010). Notably, an exceptional feature in this document is the way the two authors offered a clinical perspective of the deaf students alluding that they are prone to cyber-victimization because many consider them to be weak. The focus on the deaf population is also a factor which many research have not explored. However, the study did not give ways of mitigating cyberbullying among these deaf students.

Besag, V. (2010). Cyber Bullying: Bullying in the Digital Age. Child And Adolescent Mental Health, 15(2), 127-127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-3588.2010.00559_6.x

Besag states that the challenge of cyberbullying has become more prevalent in chat rooms, emails, instant messaging along with the digital messaging system. Each factor comes along with unique challenges. This is a sociology journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health. The article fits the topic under study as it shows that cyberbullying is an epidemic that requires policymakers to enact strategies that will effectively address the electronic bullying. Outstandingly, Besag provides an empirically based study with up to date information concerning the prevalence of cyberbullying. The article does correctly examine the role of anonymity in the electronic buying as well as including the feedback from the focus groups under study. Additionally, Besag’s research is remarkable offering conclusions alluding to practical strategies for policymakers, parents, and educators for a need to intervene and prevent the problem of cyberbullying.

Chibbaro, J. (2007). School Counselors and the Cyberbully: Interventions and Implications. Professional School Counseling, 11(1), 65-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.5330/psc.n.2010-11.65

Chibbaro’s study concerns an investigation into computer self-efficacy of teacher and student and the relationship with cyberbullying sensitivity. A review of the present literature on the issue of cyberbullying are compared with the traditional bullying for intervention purposes. More importantly, Chibbaro notes that many students misuse technology and thus creating challenges to the school counselors, administrators, and teachers. This Professional School Counseling journal attests to the challenge of cyberbullying depicting how the provision of leadership to students, parents, and faculties could help in curbing cyberbullying in attempts to ensure the safety of the students. The strength of the journal is evident from the way it comprehensively advocates for the implementation of policies in school that will help to prevent cyberbullying. The article, however, does not highlight the vulnerable group that require more attention. Nevertheless, the document postulates that effective collaboration between the key stakeholders of the school serves to straighten the efforts of the counselor in inhibiting cyberbullying.

Foody, M., Samara, M., & Carlbring, P. (2015). A review of cyberbullying and suggestions for online psychological therapy. American Journal of Sociology, 2(3), 235-242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2015.05.002

This source comes from the American Journal of Sociology elucidating that cyberbullying has started to emerge in the scientific literature due to the detrimental implications that have to the development of the adolescent children. For this reason, victimization arising from the problem of cyberbullying is linked to negative impacts that are similar to face to face bullying like having anxiety, low academic achievement, and suicide. To curb the harmful consequences, the journal suggests for online psychological treatment therapies for the victims. This equips the fatalities with means of coping with the distress that emanates from experiences of cyberbullying. Remarkably, the journal provides an up-to-date review of the literature on the issue and discusses the intervention and prevention strategies giving it a strength. Again, the authors comprehensively describe cyberbullying among the adolescent students and mention the damaging impacts that this subject has on their lives including academics. However, the document majorly focuses cyberbullying among the adolescent students ignoring the other population which also face the problem of cyberbullying.

Hanewald, R. (2012). Identifying, Understanding and Preventing Cyber Bullying. American Journal of Sociology, 3(4), 806-814. http://dx.doi.org/10.20533/licej.2040.2589.2012.0107

Hanewald delves into the empirical studies on cyberbullying and extracts key issues as well as discussing their implications. This source is from American Journal of Sociology. According to Hanewald, educational authorities, government, parents, educators and protection agencies have to enact measures and legislation to enable safe online experience. These include the installation of internet blocks and filters, “cyber safety programs to educate young people about ways in which they protect themselves from offensive content” and legislation driven at deterring potential online predictors and offenders (Hanewald, 2012). Undoubtedly, document assists the reader to be endowed with the essential information required to identify, understand and prevent cyberbullying. Broadly, Hanewald describe the rise in cyberbullying and illustrates how the age and gender relate to the topic. Again the description provided on the emerging issues such as mandatory training and protection, cyber suicide and legislation and mobile devices and sexting are outstanding form the journal. However, the research could also have focused on the role of peers in cyberbullying.

Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. (2013). Social Influences on Cyberbullying Behaviors Among Middle and High School Students. Journal Of Youth And Adolescence, 42(5), 711-722. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-012-9902-4

This source from Journal of Youth and Adolescence describes the “Social Influences on Cyberbullying Behaviors among Middle and High School Students” (Hinduja & Patchin, 20130. It mentions that during adolescent age, many of the behavioral choices are typically conditioned and influenced by the role of socializing agents such as family, friends, and teachers. The study aimed at determining the extent to which these agents impact on cyberbullying behaviors. Here, it is explained that youths whose friends are involved in cyberbullying are more likely to report cases of the crime. Evidently, the article’s strength is embodied in the vast data collected form the respondents and analyzed to arrive at conclusion. It is therefore reliable for generalization. Also, it describes the implication of families and schools aiming at the mitigation of this behavior along with indication the negative outcomes in the youths.

Mesch, G. (2009). Parental Mediation, Online Activities, and Cyberbullying. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 12(4), 387-393. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2009.0068

This Cyberpsychology and Behavior journal attempts to fill the literature gap in cyberbullying through analyzing parents’ mediation and online activities impacting on the society. The findings of the study indicated that the bullying is more in individuals who keep an active profile on social network sites. Besides, it expounds on the need to increase parental participation in efforts to reduce that the use of internet for interpersonal communication among the youths. Particularly, the study gives a useful explanation of the factors that are associated with increased risks of parental and guardianship in mitigating cyberbullying. However, a weakness arises from its lack of statistical significance on the measure of “parental monitoring that is conceptualized as guardianship component of the perspective” (Mesch, 2009). It also fails to expand the extent of victimization experienced by different populations.

Patchin, J., & Hinduja, S. (2006). Bullies Move Beyond the Schoolyard. I preliminary look at Cyberbullying. Youth Violence And Juvenile Justice, 4(2), 148-169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541204006286288

This study gives an overall goal of the current work that illuminates the deviance stemming from the intersection of communication and computers. Indeed, this source from Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice Journal gives a profound foundation to the backdrop of the problem of cyberbullying beyond the school setting. The results indicate many people encounter bullying by they ignore or keep to themselves. The findings ignites the need to proactively respond to the negative potential use of technology in attempts to underscore the online behavior. The research’s strength is attested to the information collected from the official websites that many people target online and end up being cyberbullied. Again, the research strongly highlights the experiences that the youths face on the internet. However, the study failed to focus on anecdotal stories and case analysis from the internet and their role in cyberbullying.

References

Barlett, C., Chamberlin, K., & Witkower, Z. (2016). Predicting cyberbullying perpetration in emerging adults: A theoretical test of the Barlett Gentile Cyberbullying Model. Aggressive Behavior, 43(2), 147-154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.21670

Bastiaensens, S., Pabian, S., Vandebosch, H., Poels, K., Van Cleemput, K., DeSmet, A., & De Bourdeaudhuij, I. (2015). From Normative Influence to Social Pressure: How Relevant Others Affect Whether Bystanders Join in Cyberbullying. Social Development, 25(1), 193-211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sode.12134

Bauman, S., & Pero, H. (2010). Bullying and Cyberbullying Among Deaf Students and Their Hearing Peers: An Exploratory Study. Journal Of Deaf Studies And Deaf Education, 16(2), 236-253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/deafed/enq043

Besag, V. (2010). Cyber Bullying: Bullying in the Digital Age. Child And Adolescent Mental Health, 15(2), 127-127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-3588.2010.00559_6.x

Chibbaro, J. (2007). School Counselors and the Cyberbully: Interventions and Implications. Professional School Counseling, 11(1), 65-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.5330/psc.n.2010-11.65

Foody, M., Samara, M., & Carlbring, P. (2015). A review of cyberbullying and suggestions for online psychological therapy. Internet Interventions, 2(3), 235-242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2015.05.002

Hanewald, R. (2012). Identifying, Understanding and Preventing Cyber Bullying. Literacy Information And Computer Education Journal, 3(4), 806-814. http://dx.doi.org/10.20533/licej.2040.2589.2012.0107

Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. (2013). Social Influences on Cyberbullying Behaviors Among Middle and High School Students. Journal Of Youth And Adolescence, 42(5), 711-722. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-012-9902-4

Mesch, G. (2009). Parental Mediation, Online Activities, and Cyberbullying. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 12(4), 387-393. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2009.0068

Patchin, J., & Hinduja, S. (2006). Bullies Move Beyond the Schoolyard. Youth Violence And Juvenile Justice, 4(2), 148-169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541204006286288

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