Stressor sensitivity is both a hospital course for children and single infants. Reduced parietal and frontal brain width, temporal lobe functional connectivity and altered diffusion measures (Neonatal intensive care unit stress is associated with brain development in preterm infants). There will also be behavioral anomalies, particularly neurobehavioral evaluation. Exposure to this stress may be detrimental to children.
However, due to prenatal and neonatal treatment, recent decants have improved as a result of
Smoking affects the growth of the infant and the allotment of their mother. Their current and future lives are influenced by this. For example, nicotine will be absorbed in respiratory tract into mother’s blood stream, which by diffusion goes to breast milk. Nicotine has the half-life that is about 97 minutes. Nicotine is absorbed a little from breast milk, which is higher in blood stream than active smoking.
Effects of cigarette smoking may lead the mothers less likely to breastfeed, breastfeeding in short time and less initiate breastfeeding.
Mother smoking should seek to counsel. Quitting would be ultimate recommendations, though hard focus is now reducing Childs exposure to nicotine. There are services needed for preemies will include physical therapy, occupational therapy speech and language, vision, hearing, nutrition, medicine and social work
The following strategies can be applied to help mothers who are actively in smoking.
• Reducing number of cigarettes she smokes
• Smoke after breastfeeding
• Encourage mothers to transdermal batches to avoid smoking.
• Not to allow smoking in closed areas where the baby may be
• Don’t take the baby to smoky environments
• Cover hair with old clothing and leaving it outside the smoking area.
• Identify the child with symptoms related to nicotine
On the other hand taking alcohol may cross the breast milk, which changes the flour of the milk. The fluid volume is reduced. The advice to the mothers include
• Minimizing alcohol exposure
• Choosing low alcohol drinks
• Eating before and while drinking.
• Avoiding alcohol there hours before breastfeeding

Smith, Gillian C., et al. “Neonatal intensive care unit stress is associated with brain development in preterm infants.” Annals of neurology 70.4 (2011): 541-549.

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