stress and psychology

Stress is described as the external pressure that necessitates a response from the body system. From one perspective, it helps animals survive environmental challenges by acting as a wake-up call. On the other hand, it may be a hindrance to victims’ safe lives. In an ideal world, stress will include certain psychological and biological changes in the organism’s body system to allow for successful reaction and survival in the ecosystem. In exceptional circumstances, an inappropriate reaction to stress may result in illness or death. As a result, depression must be dealt with appropriately in the victim’s life. It may be acute in mild cases or chronic in moderate to long-term cases or even traumatic, leading diseases and disability in the individual’s life.

The most predominant causes of stress include traumatic experiences, unpleasant environmental conditions as well as other life-threatening experiences that may include naturally occurrences and fabricated accidents. The biological explanations of stress impacts effectively relate to the body’s psychological health that trickles down to the physical and emotional health organizations of the individuals.

The organic psychology of the human response system to stress

In order to understand the biology of the stress response system, one needs to understand the operation of the neuron systems in the body. The system consists a wired network of neuron cells that transmit a message from one end to the other to initiate the response in the environment. The neuron cells align themselves in a systematic way to initiate an immediate response in case of the stressor detection. A channel of transmission exists between the receptor cells and the transmitter cells. Neurotransmitters are vital chemical channels through which the decoded and encoded messages reach their target organs in the response curve. The major neuron pathways in this system include the hippocampus, amygdala, septum, as well as the brain stems that play very crucial part of stress reaction situation in the environment.

Stress is a common factor that affects the central nervous system of the human body. It also affects the neuron response to the environmental demands at any time in the ecosystem. Thus, psychosocial stressors may be real events or ideal conditions that erupt from with individual’s system of reasoning. The cognitive abilities and environmental responses towards the stressors posit a correlational record that highlights the role of the biological components of the body cells.

Biological response to stressors and health concerns

Potentially, the biochemical organizations of the body tissues play a central role in controlling the physiological response of the victims to stress and the stressor impacts in the environment. Stress commonly suppresses the activities of the receptor cells and the chemical components of the body. Therefore, the biological response of the victim’s body posits a potential risk to the health of the individuals. The body judges the stressor as to whether it is stressful or not. The signal is then sent the pituitary gland and the adrenalin medulla to offset the imbalance in the hormonal disturbances (Trautmann, 2017).

Chronologically, the stressors first trigger the hypothalamus. This, in turn, triggers the pituitary gland, which in response sends a message to the adrenal gland. In the contemporary society, the word stress has become a common say among the populace. The primary causes of stress in the community include loss of close family members. Subsequently, they face traumatic experiences that may occur at different levels among the victim depending on the personal genetic make-ups of the individual. At the same time, experiences of social injustices and other maltreatment may force an individual to subject the body to frequent stress. As such, stressors involve individual factors.

How the mental impacts relate to the:

Physical health

Components of physical health and the relevant systems in operation

Physically, the cortisol hormone bears a direct bearing on the body weight of people. This hormone may dictate the level of appetite among the victims of stress. One of the major concerns on the physical health of the victims lies in eating disorders. Eating disorder is a potential threat to the physical health of the individual. Additionally, such diseases result in complicated body weight among the victims. Ideally, the connection between physical health and stress display the consequences of unhealthy living styles. Health professionals argue that lifestyle and stressors may bear close relationship in the life societies.

Links to stress factors

Emotional health

The emotional health of the body comprises the link between the neuron central nervous system and the body’s receptor cells at the target organs. Therefore, stress contributes an immediate response to environmental factors such as sudden loud noise as well as an instantaneous feeling of extreme external pressure on the operation systems in the body. Evidently, such instant signals trigger immediate actions from the organ systems such as the breathing systems and the circulatory systems. The heartbeat rate will instantly increase as a feeling of the profuse functioning of the response system. This way, the body hormone system coordinated by the sympathetic nerves initiate the sweat, dilated the pupil, as well as the fear response syndromes in the body. As a result, the adrenaline glands at the posterior ends of each kidney initiate the decline in the production of the adrenaline hormones to help slow down the actions of the noradrenaline synapses. These constitute the acute response mechanism that instantly calls for the adrenal medulla’s immediate action.

However, during the long-term stress period, the hypothalamus takes the central role as part of the brain. The organ releases an imperative hormone release factor known as the releasing factor for corticotrophin (CFR). This moves through the blood system to the pituitary gland. At the pituitary gland, the element initiates the release of the adrenocorticotropic hormone that intentionally traverses through the blood to the adrenal cortex, where the systems respond based on the mental capabilities of the individual victim. Ideally, the connection and the transfer of the messages within the nerve systems postulate a channel of communication that not only help to initiate a healing process within the victim but also develop the defense mechanism towards the stressor in the body systems.

Chronic cases of stress elevate the level of the cortisol hormone in the body. Concurrently, the victim can suffer mood disorder owing to the imbalance in the body system. Also, cortisol hormone has a variety of impacts in the body. Cortisol is very vital in the body’s emotional behaviors. In excessive presence, it results in mood alterations and the victim may opt to abnormal behaviors such as abnormal weight gain. It may also affect the concentration spans of the stress victims in the society. Nevertheless, the biological importance of the hormone is highly remarkable since it allows the individual to express their feelings.

During these periods of stress in the body, the emotional health of the victim becomes compromised and the individual may not consciously make judgments. Hence, most individuals living in such environments experiences cases related to sleeping disorders, smoking, accidents, substance abuse, eating disorders as well as social withdrawal syndromes (Lovallo, 2015).. Ideally, the hormonal balance in their body system may not portray the positive functions required by the individuals. Cortisol enhances the production of excess glutamates around the brain cells that probably kill the cells progressively in the brain regions.

The psychological stress response and health

Cardiovascular illnesses

Stress, as a lifestyle element, bears a close link to the socio-economic conditions of an individual. Predominantly, people with lower socioeconomic status in the community posit potential danger in suffering much of the impacts of stress in a free world. Job dissatisfactions and imitation itself is a stressor element in the society. Inevitably, such individuals tend to suffer much of the cardiovascular diseases in their lifestyle. Reports indicate that higher percentage of people with psychological stress potentially suffer from the cardiovascular diseases more often than those with less effect of mental instability in the societies.

Although no close link of association exists in the recent studies, experimental results show that psychological stressors have an enormous prospective impact on the health of the individual victims of stress in the society. Nevertheless, the social risk factors play an essential role in the development of the health conditions in the body resulting from stress and other psychological instability. Interestingly, the stressors present chances of cyclic occurrence of anxiety and discontent in the environment (Tops, 2016).

Inflammations and the physical health

It can also cause ulcers. The presence of too much hydrochloric acid in the stomach walls corrodes the stomach linings and results in the development of cancerous cells that can cause ulcers of the stomach. As a result, too much stress is harmful to the health

Brain impacts

Stress greatly alters the memory system of the victim. It affects the prefrontal cortical side of the brain. Thus, the victims of stress at elderly ages tend to develop dementia. As a result, their speed of action and attentiveness reduces with increase in stressor levels in the environment. Evidently, the number of cases relating to abnormal brain performances in the societies highlights the number of cognitive disorders among the individuals. The brain acts as the center of control among human beings. Any alteration in the performance of the brain will affect the performance of the person (James Walmart, and Kalat 2006).

Notably, stress affects the gene functionalities underlying the brain cells. It affects the majority of the effector cells connected to the brain cells that illustrates the connection of the communication channels. It can lead to psychological conditions such as psychiatric disorders in as well as other cases of abnormalities.

It lowers the immunity of the victim. Surprising different enzymatic and hormonal actions depend on each other in the body. Many people in the society today are subject to disease vulnerability because of altered and lowered immune system. This is because of stressor elements in the communities. Practically, the number of individuals traumatized by the stressors in the cultures tends to recognize nothing but their personal failures in life. Such conditions not only affect their cognitive strength but also limit their self-confidence in many aspects of life.

Fast, J. (2015) asserts that a young girl subjected to sexual abuse, for instance, may a family member traumatize feel for the entire lifetime staying with the fresh memories of the action. Critically, this woman deserves a social support in the society to help her promote her self-esteem. This pandemic is a serial personality killer in many societies today. People live at the fear of exposing vices done to them by their family members in the society.

The society builds the people living in it through the social and moral support accorded to each other at the family level and the community levels. Therefore, the biological stressor factor exists as a contribution of the household members and the society as well. This way, the only way to avoid the stressors in the community is to input values that focus on the socio-moral supports. Evidently, the impact of stress cannot be managed in a single setup. It needs the input of both the stakeholders

Stress management strategists and the biological psychology of stress management

Several strategies are applicable in enhancing effective psychological stress in the human biology. First, one needs to avoid the stressors. An individual can avoid the stressors by living in harmony with the family members. Ideally, peace is the initial stage at which the biological management of stress begins. This condition enhances effective functioning of both the hormones and the enzymes of the body. Combined, the system helps the communication system of the Central Nervous System.

Secondly, one should view life positively from all aspects. To avoid conflict of functionality in the organ systems, an individual should enhance positive perception of all aspects of life occurrences in the communities. Positive lifestyle include healthy diets and effective communication among individuals in the society. Thus, to avoid chronic stress cases among individuals, members of the society should work together to ensure peaceful existence in the society.

Moreover, people should love religious matters and fellowshipping together. Psychologist argue that a religious lifestyle promote peaceful mind development. People tend to believe that the presence of God in once life helps the individual to be at peace with the society and person themselves. The holly teachings also postulate that relationship with justifies the element of humanity as a peaceful being that should always lead a happy and healthy life in the society.

Additionally, people should work together with confidants. A confidant is an individual in which one can share their views without fear or favor. Based on this, they can share their grievances and sorrows at the times of sadness as well as share their moments of joy. In return, the victim will boost their self-esteem and confidence in life as opposed to discouragement in life.

Concisely, the biological psychology of stress posits that stress has a huge impact on the human brain. It does not only affects the neurotransmission system of the nervous system, but also affect the health development of the individual at stake. Consequently, people should avoid stress where necessary or effectively manage the stress in their lifestyles to facilitate healthy behaviors in the societies.


Fast, J. (2015). Beyond Bullying: Breaking the Cycle of Shame, Bullying, and Violence. Oxford University Press.

James Walmart, Kalat (2006). Biological Psychology 11th edition:

Lovallo, W. R. (2015). Stress and health: Biological and psychological interactions. Sage publications.

Trautmann, S., Muehlhan, M., Kirschbaum, C., Wittchen, H. U., Höfler, M., Stalder, T., & Steudte‐Schmiedgen, S. (2017). Biological stress indicators as risk markers for increased alcohol use following traumatic experiences. Addiction Biology.

Düsing, R., Tops, M., Radtke, E. L., Kuhl, J., & Quirin, M. (2016). Relative frontal brain asymmetry and cortisol release after social stress: The role of action orientation. Biological psychology, 115, 86-93.

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