Karl Marx’s characterization of worker displacement into four forms of estranged labor is one of his most important contributions to capitalism. They involve the worker’s estrangement from the object, the activity of manufacturing, human identity, and man to man. As a result, the article includes an overview of both of these systems, as well as how writers Hesford and Butler contribute to them.
First, Marx addresses the workers’ separation from the finished product as a result of their labor (Christ 555). The capitalist system of this kind is governed by two economic cases: those who own land privately and peasants. While the latter is poor, the former represents the wealthy social caste hence the laborers buy from the capitalists the products they make through their efforts. As a result, workers produce more goods but has no direct or final relationship with the rand since such an object become either an alien or hostile to them (Christ 555). Therefore, despite the investment of life, time, and energy in the production process, the fruits of these efforts are appropriated to the wealthy instead, a world that they do not belong. The lack of possession of the object produced by a person makes such an individual alienated from their creations due to differences in ownership of property.
The second type entails a capitalist society where a laborer is a stranger from the activity of production (Christ 555). Though directly involved in performing the duties and functions in an organization, the worker only does this to achieve rewards that make their ends meet, and for survival (Christ 555). The capitalist is responsible for the decision of the production process, type of goods produced, and the number of workers. However, they do not own the activity as they are performing the function for someone else. In light of this, a staff member only acts according set guidelines as opposed to the act coming through self-direction, naturally, or their creativity (Christ 555). In other cases, the hostility is that even their input in the production process is owned by another individual of a higher wealth class.
Thirdly, a worker is alienated from human identity. The implication is that the purpose of the end product, relating to the person making it, constitutes the core identity of the laborer (Christ 556). However, factors such division of labor contributes significantly into the separation of the efforts of such an individual with the significance of the object (Christ 556). Further, private ownership of the employees by the capitalists necessitates the transfer of the linkage to the owner of the wealth (Christ 556). In this regard, the staff has no intrinsic value of the utility and purpose of a product.
The last form of estrangement is between man to man, which refers to the worker‘s perception of the capitalist owning the production, activity, and purpose of the object as alien and hostile (Christ 556). The reason is that the worker feels used by the wealthy for their selfish desires and enrichment. The fact that the capitalists own labor makes the workers antagonistic to them since it denies them the opportunities to realize self-actualization. Therefore, in a setting of the private property, the workers are only a means through which the capitalists transform raw materials into sustenance objects (Christ 556). Besides, in a capitalist market, competition brings wages down, but through allies of the workers, they can drive transformation (Christ 556). Though this manuscript of estranged Marx’s first, authors such as Hesford and Butler in their work also relate to the alienation based on labor.
Victoria Hesford is a scholar of the feminism topics across different culture in work. The author views the concept of feminist and rise of activism as objects such as in Marx’s reference to the labor (Hesford and Diedrich 104). In expounding the theory, the author Hesford’s work also classifies Chinese feminism into four categories which include colonial era, nationalism period, market restructuring, and globalization period. In addition to the similarity of a classification approach to Marx’s alienation, Hesford also theorizes the feminist concepts as distinct cultures united by a joint activism front (Hesford and Diedrich 104). In the same way, workers have to merge due to their similarities to transform ownership of property from capitalists, activists and feminist advocacy groups also join forces to fight for universal rights all over the world due to their alienation.
On the other hand, Butler is an advocate of the gender issues through her video. In particular, Judith argues that the society should understand gender is performative since various institutions and culture help construct it in childhood development hence the deviations from normal such as tomboys and lesbians. Of more importance and relation to the feminism alienation and Marx’s alienation concept, Butler as well as Previous (523) also identifies that differently gendered people become alienated by other sexualities hence the need to advocate for their rights.
In conclusion, there are four primary alienations of labor concepts advanced by Marx. They include estrangement of a worker from production activity, the capitalist through specie-being, human identity of the purpose of the product, and the object itself. As a result, authors such as Hesford about feminism and Preves about gender relate to the presentation of Marx n the need to identify and form allies of people with same societal needs in pushing for their rights. The evidence is through the advocacy of formation of activist groups or workers union in overcoming demeaning wages or violation of rights.
Butler, Judith. “Judith Butler: Your Behavior Creates Your Gender.” YouTube. N.p., 2011. Web. 23 Oct. 2017.
Christ, Oliver. “The Concept Of Alienation In The Early Works Of Karl Marx.” European Scientific Journal March 2015 edition vol.11, No.7 11.7 (2015): 551-563. Web.
Hesford, V., and L. Diedrich. “Experience, Echo, Event: Theorising Feminist Histories, Historicising Feminist Theory.” Feminist Theory 15.2 (2014): 103-117. Web. 23 Oct. 2017.
Preves, Sharon E. “Sexing The Intersexed: An Analysis Of Sociocultural Responses To Intersexuality.” Signs 27.2 (2010): 523-556. Web.