The industrial revolution resulted in the transition of agriculture into the pursuit of industrial labor, forcing people to become migrants and abandon crop cultivation. Many manufacturing factories were crowded with jobs looking to replace their farming operations. The growth in the number of employees working in factories resulted in low salaries or salary delays for jobs in various industries. Sadler addresses child labor and poor wages as a consequence of the continued development of the industrial revolution. As the world was changing from agricultural to industrial practices, most of the people abandoned the traditional economic activities that they were eying for better opportunities in the production industries (Del, 2002). Children were not left behind; they too went to provide cheap labor for low wages. Chadwick discusses the low number of women employed in the industries. In the industries, there were difficult jobs that could not be done by women hence more men were recruited to ensure the faster rate of production. With the increasing demands of goods in the international market, the management of the organizations wanted a high rate of production, a situation that led to the employment of more men than women to work on different production lines. The industrial revolution led the insufficient income in some families due to delay in payment that was brought about by the high number of workers in the industries.
Question 2
According to the Chadwick and Sadler, the living and working conditions of the workers deteriorated during the time of industrial revolution. The delay in payments led to the insufficient income and therefore families were unable to raise their families in a better living environment. Due to the high number of workers in the industries and the cheap labor offered by the industries, there was the development of slums where they were cheap houses affordable to the low-income workers. The living conditions for the children also deteriorated, children were subjected to industrial duties that were way beyond their abilities but due to the need of supplementing the family income, they had no option but to work and earn their own income. Because of increasing rate of productivity as a result of the high demand of goods from the international market, the management was forced to employ a large number of workers that they could not guarantee safety (Spielvogel, 2014). People were subjected to risky working conditions and there was also lack of risk allowances. The working condition became worse, there were injuries and in some cases, deaths resulting from neglects. Due low wages, many people could not afford good housing and the general living conditions. The living and working conditions thus became worse than it was during the time that people used to practice agriculture.
Question 3
The increasing rate of industrial revolution led to the increasing rate of child labor and poor working conditions among the workers. Parliament had to intervene to ameliorate the above situation. There were formations of laws that aid at reducing the rate of child labor. In most cases, the management of different organizations was not allowed by the new laws to engage children in the industrial work. Parliament also enacted labor laws that were meant to protect the workers in the industries. Safety laws were introduced to protect the workers from the risky working conditions, on the other hand, there were laws stipulating the risky allowances of all the workers in the industries. Before the industrial revolution people mainly concentrated on the agricultural production, therefore, there were no laws that guided the rights of workers. The agricultural businesses were mainly subsistence; this means that there was lack of strict labor laws. With the increasing industrial activities, the rate of employment rose and there was crumbling for jobs, a situation that overwhelmed the industrial management leading to poor handling of workers. The acts of parliament enhanced both the working and living conditions of the workers as well as the management of various industries.
Question 4
The activist workers attempted to ensure that the laws passed by the parliament were implemented. The activist workers advocated for better wages and better working conditions. Additionally, they also advocated for better living conditions. The activities of the activists were marred with violence and industrial strikes that caused the management to change their ways of operation (Spielvogel, 2014). There was the formation of workers unions to champion for the workers across different industries. Through the activist activities, workers were able to achieve their demands of better pay. The strikes also led to the payment of workers on time. The workers union was supported by the political powers that were also on the verge of protecting the government employees by enacting the parliamentary laws. The activities of the activists led to better living conditions for the workers; children were relieved from the industrial duties. Even after the implementation of the parliament laws, the activists continued with their activities to ensure the checks and balances on the employment trends and laws by the management of different production companies.

Del Col, L. (2002). The Life of the Industrial Worker in Nineteenth-Century England. Retrieved from:
Spielvogel, J. J. (2014). Western civilization. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.

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