Sexuality is not seen as a critical problem in the same way that hunger, starvation, diseases, and conflict are. We have a contemporary controversy between sexual activity and religion, and as a result, this is a subject that should be prioritized and handled with some degree of respect. Sexual behavior and beliefs have evolved over the years. From gambling, masturbation, and sodomy to the more new homosexuality. To combat these vices, powerful movements were created. They held crusades to protest the release of lewd literature and naked artwork. They also held campaigns to try and stop prostitution by encouraging chastity and discouraged masturbation, which was considered an unhealthy practice.
Over the years, prostitution had undergone significant changes, and it started being viewed as a permanent job for these prostitutes instead of being something temporary because they were facing persecution from the police and discrimination from the general public. Prostitution is viewed as sex work and varies from sex deviation which involves other sexual minorities like the gays. These two, however, have some common characteristics of social organization (Rubin, p.156).
Sexuality is a critical part of human lives and society as a whole. People do think about sex more than once a day, and at the same time, there are a lot of areas in human lives that sexuality is involved. Warner (56) says that society has viewed sexuality as a sin or somewhat taboo for a more considerable period which has made parents come up with stories of every kind to hide the meaning of what they are talking, specialty when discussing matters to do with sexuality with children. Five of one definition alludes to the gender of an individual as in female or male. Thus, Schwartz, Pepper, and Rutter(112) say that from a biological approach another way that the word sex is used is when talking about actual sex act or instead the mating process that enables the process to reproduce. For that reason, it is easy to determine that sex has a biological grounds but at the same time it is considered a cultural thing and therefore an individuals sexual practice at a time may not be similar to that of another a person.
The family is the primary organization in any community and was essential towards building a civil society. Families can change opinions, views, and perceptions of their family members. Hence, were used to encourage morality and they urged their members to embrace sexual conformity. A family member who had different sexual orientation than the expected average heterosexual behavior could have to hide or change in fear of being chased away or stigmatized.
The media is supposed to be at the forefront of any given situation to express the parties views on the matter. They are expected to do these without taking sides. However, they proved to be bias and even waged war against the gay community. They provided inaccurate information on matters regarding these marginalized sexual groups. Finally, every society needs Laws to operate peacefully and according to the norms. Sex Laws were formed to render certain actions illegal like rape, sodomy, child molestation and sexual assault. Not obeying these laws would lead to ones arrest. Sex laws were harsh, and penalties for their violation were beyond proportion.
An individual can be attracted to someone of the same gender, but due to some underlying factors, he has to pretend to be interested in or attracted to a person of the opposite gender. People holding positions in the public office are highly vulnerable since they work to protect their careers. They view it best to avoid sex scandals and conform to strict sexual conduct to remain in their positions. Rational human beings are born believing that dating, getting married, and starting a family between heterosexual couples is the only right way to go about relationships and that all values rest on this concept. Romancing and developing desires between people of the opposite sex is considered the heart and soul of humanity (Warner, p.45)
During the migration of laborers to cities in America and Western Europe, homosexual men and women began relocating to sexually constituted areas where they could not be isolated. Individuals who valued tradition and were based in rural areas and peasants were reshaped during this era of industrialization and urbanization. Gender roles got altered and family relations reorganized. There was evidence of distinct types of sexual persons and populations marking the new sexual system. Later, a movement got formed by individuals who supported gays and lesbianism in America. To date, America considers it the longest-running scandal involving sexual activities and sexual conduct. Peoples expectations regarding this movement were for it to bring an end to shame on matters sex and shed light on the issue. Instead, its leaders became more reactive and unembarrassed of their sexual variance (Warner, p.45)
Stigma is considered a law of existence and not just a source of tension. We have two groups of people affected by stigma. The dominant culture or the stigmaphobe is the normal world population. The stigmaphile population in this context is the gay population. The dominant culture conforms to the right ways and conducts due to the fear of stigma and does not value the same things viewed as important by the Stigmaphile. They view them as unethical and wrong. We also have those who are in between these two groups like the media, public institutions, and magazines who give their opinions towards both directions. The best way to go about these stigmatized politics is to resolve the varying perspectives of these groups. The dominant culture is the majority and should be able to compel the gay community, to embrace heterosexuality (Warner, pp. 43-45).
Sex got treated with negativity and suspicion by the Western cultures. It was considered damaging, dangerous and destructive. St. Pauls followers who were strict and staunch Christians, viewed sex as sinful unless performed by two people who got married in Gods eyes. The married couples also involved in the act solely to procreate and bear children and not for other purposes (Rubin, p.150). However, some instances were acceptable in line, having physical contact with one another: aesthetic experience, marriage, childbearing, and love. When two people were in an intimate relationship for a long time, they can also be allowed to get involved with each other physically
Because of the heteronormative imperative, families have to deny gay individuals they are related to help enforce sexual conformity. Families tried to punish and reform such members or even exile them. Most of them fled in fear of rejection and mistreatment or were thrown out by their families (Rubin). Gays get stigmatized in various institutions in the society due to their sexual conformity. A landlord might refuse to house a tenant because of his sexual orientation. Accessibility to social amenities, public offices, banks and other institutions is also tricky.
A more democratic conception of sexuality allows individuals to choose whether to be gay or straight. Depending on the society in question, homosexuality can be punished or rewarded, permanent or temporary. In some cultures like New Guinea, homosexuality was considered masculine, and all men had an obligation to get involved in such activities. When the gay community expanded, there was a significant reduction in job discrimination against them. Though cheap and low-status, they were provided with alternative employment opportunities like being bartenders and disc jockeying. However, the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS is associated with homosexuality and other unethical sexual behaviors like sodomy.
According to Rubin, sexual acts should be judged by the treatment between the involved parties and not by whether the actions are carried out in groups or by a couple, or if the people involved were gay or straight (Rubin,p.153). However, sexual misconducts like homosexuality, obscenity, and prostitution are portrayed as a danger to women and children, and the family as a whole. These acts are also portrayed as health menaces and threats to national security for them to be banned (Rubin, p. 163).
Rubin, G. Sexual politics, the new right and the sexual fringe. Boston:
Alyson, 1981. (pp. 143-177)
Warner, Michael. The Trouble with Normal. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University
Press, 2003. (pp. 41-80) Print.
Schwartz, Pepper, and Virginia Rutter. The Gender of Sexuality. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Pine Forge Press, 1998. Print.