As we learned in class, learning the pH value of a compound is crucial to recognize the composition of the objects surrounding us and the world in general. The scale ranges from 1 to 14, with 7 being considered neutral. From 1 to 6.9, the pH is acidic, and from 7.1 to 14 is basic. In this experiment, we use litmus papers to measure the pH of some of the compounds in the household setup to determine their location on the pH scale. Litmus papers are used in determining the acidity of solutions where an acid mixture changes the blue litmus test to red while a basic solution turns a red litmus paper blue.
Part 1
In the initial part of the experiment, various food samples were collected and include beans stew, cooked meat, and baked yams. A litmus paper was used and the color change by the food was observed as follows:
• Beans stew turned the litmus paper red showing the food was acidic.
• When the litmus paper was tested on the cooked meat stew, the litmus paper turned red showing the meal was acidic.
• The litmus paper turned red when tested on baked yams proving the food was acidic.
Additionally, the acidity test was carried on several liquids in the house which included tea, strawberry jam, soybean milk and maple syrup. When a litmus paper was placed on the surface of these liquids maple syrup, and strawberry jam turned the litmus paper red, signifying the liquids were acidic. When the litmus paper was placed on the tea, the litmus paper turned blue which showed that tea is a base solution. However, when the litmus paper was laid on soybean milk, there was no reaction in color change suggesting the solution was neutral. When a litmus paper was placed on a moist kitchen table, the litmus paper turned blue, when passed on a wet Livingroom table, there was a blue change of color which was similar when tested on the floor.
On testing the litmus paper on tap water there was no change in color on the litmus paper, signifying the water was basic. As part of the experiment, soil from the flower bed was mixed with water and after shaking the solution well and allowing it to settle, a litmus paper was placed on the surface to determine the acidity. The litmus paper turned red upon contact with the solution supporting the claim the garden soil is acidic.
Part 2
In the chemical reaction involving a solution baking soda and warm water, few drops of liquid soap and vinegar, the following was observed. Baking soda dissolved in the lukewarm water solution and the addition of few drops of liquid detergent and vinegar resulted in a fizzing, and the solution began to foam up which overflowed from the container onto the table surface filled with froth and tiny bubbles. When a litmus paper was tested on the solution, the litmus paper turned red.
From the results observed from the draft, understanding the pH levels of various compounds around us is enlightening. Litmus paper is significant in determining the acidity, basicity or whether a solution is neutral. Through the results explained in the draft, it is easier to understand the chemical reaction as in the case of baking soda and vinegar, the color change and the pH value.

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