Heart Attack

Anatomy and physiology of the heart

The heart consists of four chambers, two ventricles, and two auricles. It receives the deoxygenated blood through it right side through venous circulation (Gavaghan, 1998). The blood is forced to the lungs from the right ventricle to eliminate the carbon dioxide and for it to absorb oxygen. The blood-rich oxygen then travels back to the heart via the left article, then to the left ventricle and then to Aorta through arterial circulation. In the meantime, the arteries experience high systolic blood pressure due to the contraction of the left ventricle. On reaching it a full contraction, the left ventricle starts to relax and therefore allow blood from left atria to refill it. At the same time, diastolic blood pressure in the arteries falls (Gavaghan, 1998). The heart a trio-ventricular septum to prevent communication between the left side and right side of the heart. The only channel of blood flow is from the right part of the heart to the left side via the lungs. Nevertheless, the four heart chamber work together to ensure blood flow to the required parts. The ventricles and atria contracts simultaneously.

Heart attack and physiological Process of the Heart

The heart muscles require oxygen to function and absence of sufficient oxygenated blood causes them to dies. A heart attack occurs due to the buildup of plaque/ plate in the coronary artery which stops blood from reaching the heart. The plate could comprise of fibrin, cholesterol, calcium, fatty substances and cellular wastes (NIH, n.d.). The plaque buildup in the heart arteries to form atherosclerosis or coronary spasm. The buildup tightens and hardens the ischemic muscles. At some point, this may lead to the rapture of the plaques and subsequently cause a blood clot. The blood clot prevents oxygenated blood from reaching the heart. Similarly, the plague can narrow the arteries preventing blood rich in oxygen from reaching the heart in a condition known as ischemic heart syndrome (Mayo Clinic, n.d). All these situations lead to heart failure

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Signs and Symptoms of Heart Attack

Patients suffering from blockage of arteries or blot clot in the arteries may have many signs and symptoms. They may experience chest pain (Mayo Clinic, n.d). The chest pain can either be mild or sharp and may last for minutes or hours. Alongside the chest pains, victims of attack may experience shortness or breath. Some patients may also feel unusual tiredness or fatigue, and this may last for several days (NIH, n.d.). Besides, patients may feel discomfort in their upper side of the body. They may feel uneasiness in the shoulders, jaw, the upper part of the stomach, arms, back, and neck. Victims of this condition may also experience cold sweet, sudden dizziness and nausea

Diagnosis of heart attack

Diagnosis of heart attack involves three possible test that includes a blood test, coronary angiography and electrocardiogram (EKG). The electrocardiogram test is a test that detects and record the electrical activities of the heart (NIH, n.d.). It shows the rhythm and the rate of a heart beating. Besides, it indicates the timing and strength of electrical signals produced by the heart. Furthermore, a blood test can also help to identify heart attack. Heart attack result to the high amount of proteins released into the blood due to death of heart muscle cells. The test indicates the number of the proteins in the blood and when greater than normal then that shows the presence of heart failure. Still, Coronary angiography can help to diagnose a heart attack. This test uses x-rays and dyes to show the inside of the coronary arteries (Mayo Clinic, n.d). The dye reaches bloodstream through the process known as cardiac catheterization where it helps physicians to detect the blood flow in the blood via the x- rays. Coronary angiography assists in identifying if there is a blockage in the heart arteries.


Treatment of heart attacks aims to restore blood flow to normal. It involves medication, surgical operations and other procedures (NIH, n.d.). Treatment includes the use of aspirin, thrombolytics antiplatelet agents, pain relievers, nitroglycerin, beta-blockers, and ACE inhibitors. The main reasons for malediction are to reduce blood clot, treat chest pain, reduce pain and minimize blood pressure. Moreover, surgical operations can create an alternative path for blood flow or open up blocked arteries (Mayo Clinic, n.d). The key surgical processes include coronary artery bypass surgery and coronary angioplasty and stenting.

Implication of Heart Attack

I am personally affected by the way the illness affect the body. It affects the most vital organ of the body that ensures supply of oxygen the body muscles and the brain. Besides, it occurs due to increased fat consumption and high blood pressure. These are things that are hard to avoid. For instance rise in blood pressure majorly come from life stresses. Also, it is challenging to measure the require amount of fat intake.



Gavaghan, M. (1998). Cardiac anatomy and physiology: a review. AORN Journal67(4), 800-822.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NIH). (n.d.).Explore Heart Attack. Retrieved on March 21, 2017, from https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/heartattack

Mayo Clinic. (n.d). Heart Attack. Retrieved on March 21, 2017, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/heart-attack/basics/treatment/con-20019520