Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies

Because of the Pleistocene extinction, Eurasia had 13 domesticated animals while America had only one. Many of North and South America’s large wild mammal populations are wiped out as a result of this extinction.
Due to a shortage of domesticable plants and livestock, America lacked a food supply.
The drawbacks that America faced in contrast to Eurasia were as follows: Americans relied heavily on protein-poor corn, tilling by hand was practiced, there was a lack of animal manure for soil fertility, Americans relied on human resources rather than animal power, and seeds were planted by hand. Variations in Writing, technology, political organizations, and germs.
Factors related to germs include Food production, infectious diseases, and genetic 1. resistance
2. Differences in technology include sea transport for Eurasian societies, Authority through organized states in Eurasia, superior weapons by Eurasian societies, metals to make tools in Eurasian societies, Eurasian societies had different sources of power to operate machines (Mushtaq 2015).

Open Ended Questions:
1. Although myth and religion share some attributes such as belief in Supreme Being, they are two different things. Religion contains non-myth elements, that is, a moral code.
2. The two empires lived in places where they had the opportunity to develop more than other continents hence they had no reason to invade and move to other continents. Climate and diseases were a big hindrance in moving from one continent to another to conquer.
3. The reason is that most of the used dates were merely attempts to track down changes along a continuum. Pottery or metal tools can be examined to establish their age, but no measure that can be used to evaluate when chiefdoms existed.
4. The author means that it was difficult for a society that had no prior practice in farming to adopt agricultural practices. The author states that the first widespread of metal tools of copper and bronze took 2000 years, while the subsequent spread of iron tools tool lesser time, 250 years. Hence, the first instance of a practice was much difficult and could take a very long time (Tomlinson 2014).

Works Cited
Mushtaq, Sabah. “Jared Diamond. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of HumanSocieties.” Pakistan Development Review 54.3 (2015): 273-276.
Tomlinson, Tom. “Review of guns, germs and steel: The fates of human societies.” Reviews in History (review no. 51). Institute of Historical Research, University of London. Retrieved 30 (2014).

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