According to scientific studies, part of global warming is caused by human activity on the earth’s atmosphere, while some are natural forces that cannot be prevented. The world’s temperatures are rising every day, wreaking havoc on plants, wildlife, and humans. Despite the dangers posed by global warming, many people remain unconcerned over emissions. As a result of the global population growth, there has been a massive loss of forests and natural habitats in the construction of land for colonization and agriculture. there are no enough trees to balance carbon dioxide in the earth atmosphere.
Causes of global warming
Emission of greenhouse gasses
Carbon dioxide and methane have significantly contributed to global warming. The emission of greenhouse gasses increased in the 21st century due to increase in industrialization; industries emit a lot of gasses into the earth atmosphere, the emitted gasses clog in the earth atmosphere leading to increased radiative forcing (Gülen 1036).
Combustion of fossil fuels
The burning of fossil fuels emits a lot of gasses into the air as well for example in the production of cement the calcinations of limestone releases a lot of carbon dioxide in the air.Aerosols and soot from the combustion of fossil fuels and emissions by volcanoes is said to cause global dimming which is the reduction in the sun’s direct radiation to the earth surface thus exerting a cooling effect by increasing the reflection of incoming sunlight.
Variation in the earth’s orbit
Thye earth orbit and its axis around the sun varies over the years, the continuous change cause variations in the distribution of sunlight on the ground surface.The difference in the distribution of solar energy leads to changes in seasons and the expected weather conditions in each season (Oxlade 24).
Effects of global warming
Rise in sea level
Global warming leads to an increase in temperatures of the sea and ocean waters; this results to the melting of icebergs thus increasing the water levels. The melting of massive glaciers may lead to four to seven meters rise in the oceans waters. An increase in the sea level may result in flooding of coastal regions leading to deaths, destruction of property as well as the destruction of infrastructure such as roads (Haugen 27). The rise in sea level may also destroy settlement and vegetation on floodplains and deltas.
Increased seismic and volcanic activities
After the melting of glaciers and icebergs landslides, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions may occur because the land is no longer depressed by the weight of ice. These occurrences led to the death of animals and human beings as well as the destruction of property (Schwartz 158).
Risk of mortality and morbidity
during times of extreme temperatures people in highly populated urban areas may develop health conditions like severe headaches and fevers, that may be fatal.
Loss of biodiversity
Extreme temperatures have led to the loss of certain species of animals and plant that could not withstand the heat. Too much heat leads to the early growth of plants thus affecting agricultural production in most parts of the world.
Economic problems
Nations that have experienced floods as a result of a rise in sea level used a lot of resources in relocating the poor victims, providing them with basic needs as well as medical care. Renovation of destroyed infrastructure, houses, and social amenities is a costly affair as well.
Change in terrestrial ecosystem
According to research in the recent past, increased temperatures led to the extinction of some ecosystems such as tundra and rainforests in some parts of the world. Increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has subsequently led to increased amounts of dissolved carbon dioxide in the waterbodies thus ending up in the bodies of sea creatures. Research has shown that the reduction in coral reefs formation has resulted from the increased amounts of dissolved carbon dioxide in ocean waters.
Changing weather patterns
Global warming results in extreme climatic changes which include increased rainfall making it difficult for meteorologists to forecast the weather, thus leaving people in darkness without knowledge of what to expect from the weather this puts farmers into the dilemma of when to plant and what to plant. Global warming has also led to prolonged drought especially in the sub-Saharan Africa (Miller 275).
Figure 1: Flow chart showing the causes and effects of global warming

International negotiations on global warming
Global warming is a controversial issue that has drawn the attention of all nations worldwide. Several international organizations have been formed to hold negotiations on how to address the problem of global warming. However, some countries find the talks helpful while others don’t find them to be of importance.International negotiations to control global warming are useful because the effects are experienced globally despite the fact that the highly industrialized countries like China contribute significantly to global warming. The negotiations came up with ways of mitigating the problem through advocating the reduction of greenhouse gasses emitted by industries. These have taken effect through imposing substantial penalties on the manufacturers that fail to adhere to the rules.
Arguments against international negotiations on global warming
International negotiations fail to address the issue of global warming effectively because the populations in both developed and developing countries have an unequal awareness to the effects of global warming and the causes.Different continents have different concerns and priorities as well, while others are working on biological effectiveness others are of economic efficiency. Therefore, the negotiations may not address the issue internationally.The concern of most developing countries is to make proper use of the resources to develop their economy, and for them not to be penalized for causing climate change like the highly industrialized developed countries are penalized they are therefore seeking equity.Another reason why international negotiations are not useful in solving the global warming issue is that in all the conferences the interest of most powerful nations has always been the primary. As a result, they have focused entirely on economic effectiveness rather than any other concerns (Goklany and Morris 157).
Developing countries point out that most greenhouse gasses are emitted by the highly industrialized countries. Therefore, they argue that they suffer the consequences of global warming yet they contribute petitely. For this reason, the developing countries tend to be more concerned with economic effectiveness rather than trying to save the environment this is evident as revealed by the world consumption patterns recently whereby the greenhouse gasses emission per person in the developing countries is higher as compared to the developed countries thus. It’s difficult for the developing and developed countries to come to the agreement on the remedy to the issue of global warming since one party blames the other.The problem of corruption has rendered international negotiations useless for example; the Kyoto Protocol has been corrupted to give privilege to the big culprits behind climate change such vices slow down the process of getting to a reasonable solution (“Global Warming and Risks of Forest Insect Outbreaks” 234).
Technological differences between the developed and developing countries is another concern as to why the international negotiations are not useful. Developing countries have found ways on how to deal with carbon dioxide after emission from the industries through the installation of carbon sinks to soak the poisonous gas. On the other hand, the developing countries lack the technology to deal with the emitted gas. As a result, they end up emitting the carbon dioxide into the atmosphere (Jacobson and Jacobson 64). The negotiations on the issue of global warming should not be carried out internationally because the magnitude of the effects of global warming is not experienced in the same way in the developed and developing countries.The developed countries rarely experience natural calamities like floods and famine, and when the occur they have the resources to control the situation, for this reason, the developed countries may be reluctant in coming up with effective measures to curb the issue of global warming. They may also hold negotiations in their best interest thus, rendering the international negotiation less efficient and rather useless.
Talks on global warming should be kept separately for both the developed and developing countries because the developed countries emit a vast bulk of the greenhouse gasses and benefit greatly from industrialization which is the primary cause of the problem.As such the developed countries should bear the biggest burden of getting to an effective solution at whatever cost.The developed countries are still lagging behind in development. Therefore, their priority is to make money and get rid of poverty thus, the effects of global warming are not in their best interest, therefore. These developing countries may not be on the frontline to contribute effectively to other matters other than those issues related to economic development (Seitz and Hite 115).
Possible remedies to global warming
Climate change is a serious problem that needs urgent and serious worldwide negotiations since all populations of the world are affected and contribute to the emission of greenhouse gasses although not in equal proportions. Awareness should be created in the developing countries to get rid of the problem of ignorance on environmental issues.
The countries heading the negotiations should not compromise with any state that fails to adhere to the terms agreed; the officials should avoid taking bribes from the biggest pollutants. Every country should be engaged in the fight against global warming since it is a global issue. Furthermore, environmentalist should encourage people to plant more and more trees to ensure carbon dioxide balance in the atmosphere. Heavy penalties should also be imposed on industries that emit a lot of carbon dioxide into the air. People are also coming up with renewable sources of energy other than charcoal and firewood.
Global warming is a controversial issue that is divided along political and economic lines, human responsibility in the factors causing global warming is different for both the developed and developing countries.The developing countries lag behind regarding environmental awareness. Thus they may contribute to global warming unknowingly. The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol meant to reduce the rate of greenhouse gas emission on the contrary. This protocol is chaired by the rich countries who are the main contributors to the emission of greenhouse gas; this contract is corrupt by the wealthy nations to serve in their best interest.For these reasons, the issue of global warming should be negotiated separately for both the developed and developing countries (Paepcke and Becker 78).
If proper measures are undertaken the greenhouse gasses will gradually reduce, and the effects of global warming will be an issue of the past, however, the reduction of greenhouse gasses cannot take place in a fortnight, the changes may be felt gradually in hundred of years to come. On the contrary, if no measures are taken in hundreds of years to come there will be no tree growing on planet earth.

Works Cited
“Global Warming and Risks of Forest Insect Outbreaks.” Forest Insect Population Dynamics, Outbreaks, and Global Warming Effects, 2017, pp. 233-249.
Goklany, Indur M, and Julian Morris. Wealth and Safety: The Amazing Decline in Deaths from Extreme Weather in an Era of Global Warming, 1900-2010. Reason Foundation, 2011. Print
Gülen, Jale. “Potential Methods for Converting Coal into Gasification Products for Reduced Global Warming.” Causes, Impacts and Solutions to Global Warming, 2013, pp. 1035-1054. Print
Haugen, David M. Global Warming. Greenhaven P, 2010.
Jacobson, Mark Z, and Mark Z. Jacobson. Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions. Cambridge UP, 2012, pp. 59- 68. Print
Miller, Debra A. Global Warming. Greenhaven P, 2013.
Oxlade, Chris. Global Warming. Smart Apple Media, 2012, pp. 16-28.
Paepcke, Frederik, and Florian Becker. Statehood in Times of Climate Change: Impacts of Sea Level Rise on the Concept of States. PL Acad. Research, 2015, pp 76-112. Print
Schwartz, Renee’. “The Nature of Scientists’ Nature of Science Views.” Advances in Nature of Science Research, 2011, pp. 153-188. Print
Seitz, John L, and Kristen A. Hite. Global Issues: An Introduction. Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. Print
The Future of Oil: Hearing Before the Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming, House of Representatives, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Second Session, June 11, 2008. U.S. G.P.O, 2010. Web.

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