The creation of humans has prompted many scientific minds to investigate the origin story. For example, the origin story of how we came to be, as well as the very essence of what makes us human. People’s feelings of traumatizing encounters are reflected in the actions they take, which has contributed to the development and research known as anthropology. Anthropologists are individuals who study human attitudes and interactions. An anthropologist’s primary responsibility is to bear-human encounters and to be able to assist. For example, visiting a rape survivor in need of help and inquiring tenderly about the sexual harassment specifics. Sexual assault refers to the various forms of sexual behavior or contact without the authorization of the victim. Rubbing or unwanted sexual touching is categorized with attempted rape acts and form the different types of assault. They also take the way of coercing a victim to carry out sexual actions, for instance, oral sex or penetrating the culprit’s body which is a traumatizing experience to encounter. Mainly means the victim is being forced to non-consensual sex which is against the law. In this case, force doesn’t necessarily imply pressure it could be in the forms of manipulation or psychological energy which could be associated with emotional bullying.
Scholarly Comparison and Contrast on the Issue of Rape
In the essay, the discussion on rape and its effects show how various worldwide scholars have addressed the issue. Rape violation is considered a sexual assault offense that is committed through an individual involving themselves in sexual intercourse of multiple forms of penetration (Baxi, 2014). Sexual assault has been acknowledged by the government and statistics show that women are most affected by a minor percentage changing men. Research has been developed to explain the experiences by anthropologists across the globe who study occurrences in human beings life. Through the study of such behavior scholars like Sameena Mulla have dedicated their work to documenting the plight of the victims. She articulates ways in which to act during and after a rape case is reported. The Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) has used the legal forensic method to verify evidence collected against a criminal (Mulla, 2014). The researcher Mulla advocated for a combination of medical and legal anthropology through the use of forensic material to identify the perpetrators of sexual assault cases. Examinations of sexual assault, are carried out every year where thousands of women and a fraction of the men turn out to get examined.
Mulla reveals the truths and realities about the responses offered and how she assists the nurses to administrate procedures and evidence collection, bearing in mind the precaution of the law. The evidence collected is run through forensic methods like DNA reading from the semen or hair collected by the nurses to determine the nature and the offender of the sexual assault (Mulla, 2014). Through the combination of medical and legal anthropology, she shows ways the book “violence of care “has helped victims who experience sexual assault. She depicts that most of the victims who continue suffering may experience secondary rape which is described during the forensic period making the individual suffer re-victimization. Repeating and sometimes mental re-living of such an experiences makes the victim feeling traumatized remembering the experience. The occurrences may happen even when in the hospital being handled by the nurses since they are governed by institutional requirements that shape their practices.
Other scholars like Gurvinder Kalra and Dinesh Bhugra show their research through interpersonal violence in significant parts of the world. The discussion on sexual violence against children and women brings along term effect that acts both socially and psychologically. In their debate on cultures, Kalra and Bhugra determined the sexual assault factors and triggers such as communities with male-superiority where the women do not necessarily have a say (Kalra & Bhugra, 2013). Moreover, such a society with oppressive male dominance culture is described as feminist and should provide equal power to both men and women.
Sexual violence is likely to occur where the women are culturally inferior due to some ancient beliefs which the scholars documented. India acted as a preferred sample site since most of the population is historically negative which means the female people is less than that of the male gender. In the year 2011, the ratio of women to men held at 930:1000 where the community encouraged gender-based violence caused by the men (Kalra & Bhugra, 2013). The numbers of sexual assault against women in India is more common due to a culture that fosters beliefs of male superiority in some areas in the country.
Although culture is a significant influence, to thoroughly appreciate the prominence of sexual violence in its wholeness, discussion on strengths and weaknesses of cultures as well as the structures form the foundation of their research (Kalra & Bhugra, 2013). They discussed more on sexual indulgence itself, sexual violence against women is often a result of different power equations both real and perceived between men and women and is also strongly influenced by cultural factors and values. In equivalent, the rate of sexual violence circumstances even ascended, though difficulty faced in establishing a proper correlation concerning the two genders. Conferring with the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), the figure of listed rape cases in India in 2011 was more significant than before having an 873.3% increased from 2,487 in 1971 to 24,206 by the end of 2011. The incidents of sexual violence on children in India have also increased by almost 336% from 2,113 cases reported in 2001 to 7,112 cases in 2011 (Kalra & Bhugra, 2013).
In Pakistan, another anthropologist known as Mookherjee Nayanika documents the predicament that encountered the women and the soldiers in 1971. In an eastern town known as Birangona had lived with wartime rape cases and violence from the western soldiers with the help of collaborators. The town had become a character profound by her unkempt hair and the shame in the stories not to mention its helplessness vacant look (Nayanika Mookherjee, 2016). The book “The Spectral Wound” Nayanika shows a comparison of a vast scope where it traces the memories of the war in 1971.
The scholar relates to rape survivor victims in Enayetpur where she listens to their testimonies and lives with these women. Sharing of experiences helps anthropologist deal with incidences and traumatic memories which help the victims recollect a positive mentality. The researcher documents that contrary to cultural beliefs in Pakistan at the time, about sexually assaulted individuals, the survivors were assimilated back to the society. The decision to carry out such a move was based on the argument the villagers gave about not willingly being part of the action, therefore, shouldn’t be blamed for it.
The scholar is also seen to record the events of 1990 when the victims were brought to Dhaka expected to give evidence of the torture they underwent during the war (Nayanika Mookherjee, 2016). However social sanctions were raised claiming the women were taking advantage of the sexual assault dishonor. Nayanika shows the women’s difficulty until the trauma silenced them allowing them to go back to healthy lives. Indeed it is heartbreaking for women with voices of protest to be subjected to a clampdown state in denial of the freedom of expression; a fundamental human right.
Scholarly Comparison to S. Mulla’s Take on Rape in Violence with Care.
Research work carried out by Nayanika, Kalra, Bhugra and Baxi can be compared to Mulla’s account of rape in her book violence with care. The ideal logics obtained in this perspective can either agree or disagree with her actions and recommendations during specific scenarios (Baxi, 2014). Nayanika concurs with Mulla on the fact that women should be given a voice to express injustices and atrocities committed towards them. She indicates that it is indeed sad to hear protester voices going against old structures of society government being silenced and was very infuriated by comments made whenever a case of sexual assault occurs. For example, during the recording of the statement, the narrator may ask if the victim asked for it. Mulla indicates that it’s pompous to deny a woman the voice to express themselves in such traumatic experiences (Mulla, 2014).
Kalra and Bhugra work agree with Mulla regarding culture promoting some cases of sexual assault and the perpetrator getting away with it. Mulla acknowledges that not all evidence collected make it to the courtroom for the administration of justice such as tiny hairs after the victim takes a shower. In parallel, the victim in a male superiority culture may not get justice as the men administer the verdict and tend to incline to the beliefs of the society (Kalra & Bhugra, 2013). It is common in this areas for a victim to be assaulted and go silent afraid of the costs. Case in point re-stigmatization of the victim during the court process.
However, some research differs from Mulla’s ideas with approaches taken by other scholars on the issue of rape. Case in point the merging of forensics with nursing. In her book, she addresses the forensic and legal matters in anthropology such as practices that the nurses should take when dealing with a rape survivor. Unlike other scholars like Nayanika or Kalra, she offers solutions through rearranging categories of care, violence, kinship, laws, and obligation which shifts the horizon of thoughts allowing new aspects of nursing.
The summary of the scholars agree on one thing which is sexual assault is a wicked deed and deserves attention to curb the effects among women. Kalra and Bhugra show that cultural influences some sexual assault cases, especially where men are considered superior to the women. Other scholars like Nayanika too, have shown the ordeals of Pakistani women during the war period in 1971 where the society admits to a public secrecy of rape victims. Mulla has combined both intellectuals’ materials acknowledging the struggles that face victims as well as the use of forensic nursing aspects to assist the victims.
Baxi, P. (2014, July 18). Sexual Violence and Its Discontents. Retrieved from Annual reviews: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-anthro-102313-030247
Kalra, G., & Bhugra, D. (2013, July 12). Sexual violence against women: Understanding cross-cultural intersections. Retrieved from US National Library of Medicine: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3777345/
Mulla, S. (2014, August 23). The Violence of Care: Rape Victims, Forensic Nurses, and Sexual Assault Intervention. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/277708722_The_Violence_of_Care_Rape_Victims_Forensic_Nurses_and_Sexual_Assault_Intervention
Nayanika Mookherjee. (2016). The Spectral Wound: Sexual Violence, Public memories, and the Bangladesh War of 1971. Durham: Duke University Press.