Volcanic Eruptions

The inner earth core is usually made of tectonic plates which float on the soft and hotter layer in the mantle. The plates are generally constant in movement and are under the influence of tectonic forces. The movement of the plates may sometime overcome the ground layer of the earth, and it may lead to a volcanic eruption. The approach of this paper will firstly focus on the effects of the tectonic forces that lead to a volcanic eruption, the types of volcanos and various types of volcanic eruptions that have taken place around the world and the impacts.

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The earth volcanos usually happen where the tectonic plates are converging or diverging which mainly take place in the oceanic plates. The eruptions can also be formed where there is a thinning and stretching of the crust`s plates and are usually described as plate hypothesis (Papale et al., 2019). They can also take place away from the plate boundaries which is also be explained as mantle plumes. In our case, the tectonic plates that lead to eruption are both related to the earth crust and the oceanic crust. We shall also describe some of the past explosion that lead to a volcanic eruption in other places and the relation of the tectonic forces.

Over the past few years, in the 20th century, the earth has been experiencing eruptions in different parts of the world. In 1980, in Skamania County. Firstly, it should be noted that once the St. Helen Mountain was a beautiful scenery located in Washington DC (Kiser et al., 2018). It was among the beautiful stratovolcano mountain with a rise of up to 9600 feet above the sea level. It led to the most fatal economic destructions in the US history.  The lava flow led to destruction of bridges, homes, highways and railways. Before the eruption, seismograph systems were installed to monitor earthquake sought of activities that were taking place around Mount St. Helen. There was a rise of seismic activities around them, and there was a need to determine the leads to the events.  The people who were living around the mountain were dislocated and the eruption was not marked with many deaths. The 4.2 magnitude level of earthquake stroke the place on March 20th and it was followed with several hazardous and robust earthquake which finally led to the eruption and led to the increase of the mountain level with 1000 feet higher (Kiser et al., 2018).

The eruption that happened in Mount Pinatubo was recorded to be the second-largest ever to occur within the century that was located in the Philippines. The volcanic eruption was influenced by the strong earthquake that happened in California in 1990. The earthquake triggered the tectonic plates in Pinatubo and led to the explosion in 1991 before the eruption there were several landslides around the mountain due to the increased seismic activities. Later, the Magma would begin to flow out and led to the formation of the lava dome (Papale, 2019). The lava domes buried many homes and many people died. The composition of the lava dome was followed with millions of gas-charged cubic yards magma that reached the surface, and the eruption occurred.

The Nevada del Ruiz was another volcanic eruption tragedy that happened in Colombia in November 1985. The volcano occurred after 69 years of dormancy, and it caught the neighboring individuals unaware despite the government receiving warnings about the happening of the volcano (Federico et al., 2017).  This led to death of many individuals. The Mount Rainer eruption happened to take place between 1894 and 1895, and the observers had reported a summit of small explosions during the eruption. The eruption occurred around Tacoma and Seattle and led to the spread of Sulphur (IV) Dioxide around the places and it became the primary cause the recorded many deaths.

Mount Rainer eruption is considered to be the most hazardous volcano that ever happened in the world. It’s now the second tallest mountain in the world with a height of up to 13,210 ft. It was a stratovolcano that consisted of debris, pyroclastic ejecta, and lava flows (Decker, 2016). The early deposits of the volcano were estimated to be more than 840,000 years old that is the age of the rocks within the place. It lastly erupted in 1895 after taking two years of continuous eruption that led to many losses of life. The mountain is known for its significant glaciers; 26 of them that usually flow down to form rivers. The mountain is considered to be dominant, but once the eruptive activities begin, it may lead to loss of many lives and properties. If the mountain were to erupt forcefully like the St Helen Mountain, its impacts would be cumulatively higher because of the massive amount of glacial ice that is fixed to the volcano which is higher than what is perceived on Mount St Helen. However, the peoples` activities on the top of the Rainier deposits is slowly awakening the volcanic events of the mountain (Decker, 2016). The hydrothermal activities are the main leads that may lead to the eruption of the volcano. The volcano is hazardous nature make it have the capability of producing a pyroclastic flow that is mudflow that would lead to the expulsion of lava which may lead to either a tsunami or an enormous eruption.

Several Geologists in Washington DC tend to explain the consequences the individuals who are around the mountain would be subjected to. The geologist would establish various methods that would assist in coping with the future volcanic events of the Rainer. Installation of warning system about the volcanic lahar around the Mount Rainer assisted in emergency evacuation on the debris flow catastrophic events (Decker, 2016). The department that deals with the warning system is referred to as the Pierce County Emergency Management Department.  The department has also been on the move of dislocating people who live at the top of the Lahar deposits as they are on a higher risk of being affected by mudflow due to the weakening of the volcano. The department has also been mentioning the future events concerning the Rainer Mountain. The mountain has also been renamed several time.

The Washington team of geologists are focused on preventing disastrous events that may end up happening once the Rainer Mountain begins its volcanic activities. The geologists are trying to avoid the eruptions from happening without the awareness of the people around the place as it had occurred at Nevada De Cruz Mountain. Such events may lead to severe deaths and loss of properties. The fixing of emergency devices that would enable early rescue of the individuals will be essential to prevent future happening like that of Mount Nevada. The seismograph is also necessary devices that are used by the geologist that would enable saving of lives like the way it was used before the St Helen eruption where the early detection of the seismic waves contributed to the save of lives and properties.

 

Reference

Decker, L. K. (2016). Analysis of Future Land Use Conflict with Volcanic Hazard Zones Mount Rainier, Washington (Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California).

Federico, C., Inguaggiato, S., Chacón, Z., Londoño, J. M., Gil, E., & Alzate, D. (2017). Vapour discharges on Nevado del Ruiz during the recent activity: clues on the composition of the deep hydrothermal system and its effects on thermal springs. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 346, 40-53.

Kiser, E., Levander, A., Zelt, C., Schmandt, B., & Hansen, S. (2018). Focusing of melt near the top of the Mount St. Helens (USA) magma reservoir and its relationship to major volcanic eruptions. Geology, 46(9), 775-778.

Papale, P., & Marzocchi, W. (2019). Volcanic threats to global society. Science, 363(6433), 1275-1276.

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