The US experienced a decrease in crime rates from 1991 to 2012 unexpectedly. The decline was attributed to several factors, such as sentencing reforms to get tough on crime perpetrators, police funding, and growth in policing programs. These factors, among others, were put in place and played a significant role in reducing the rates of crimes that had skyrocketed in the country for an extended period.
To begin with, is the reform in the judicial sector over the prison. The changes resulted in the rise of the prison population. Initially, culprits were set free after a short period because of little space. However, with the restructuring of the legal service and enacting strict laws, more criminals were kept in prison waiting to be sentenced (Siegel, Schmalleger, & Worrall, 2017). Also, more harsh punishment was passed and inflicted on the perpetrators. For example, the offenders from the streets were always locked up in the prisons. This reduced their chances of committing more crimes. For that reason, people feared to get with the police for doing wrong. Therefore, strict laws enacted in the judicial sector on crimes helped to decline the crime rate in the US from 1991 to 2012.
Secondly, the crime rates deteriorated due to increase in the number of police funding. The funding led to the rise in personnel recruitment. Since the police are on the first line of defense against crimes, every year, more than $ 70 billion was used on policing during the period. Increases in funding in the police sector, and stringent laws were initiated by the political leaders (Blumstein, Wallman, & Farrington, 2006). In the beginning, it was thought that the strict rules introduced would increase the crime rates. However, a significant decline was witnessed. With more personnel, the number of patrols increased. Also, the number of police guiding a particular unit area increased. In rallies and political functions, police were able to provide enough security. Therefore, with increased funding of the police sector, the number of crime rates declined from the early 1990s into the 21st century.
The third reason that contributed to a decline in crime rates in the US was the popularity growth of the innovative police program in policing. This is commonly known as the policing purpose and organization. Through it, the police mission, management of police department, policing styles, terrorism’s impact on policing, discretion and individual of the officer, and gender and professional ethics are stipulated. The policing organization gives the basic guideline on apprehending the offenders, enforcing the law, a criminal investigation, support the service, and problem-solving ways to the police. Also, the organization ensured the performance standards, objectives, and processes involved to be followed strictly in each of the departments (Blumstein, Wallman, & Farrington, 2006). The organization also outlines the chain of command, which makes the police work more fruitful in curbing crimes than before. The organization changed the personnel at each level and ensured that more police were employed in the criminal intelligence to increase intelligence-led policing and more effective to curtail terrorism. In the section of professionalism and ethics of the police, many issues were changed. Such issues include raising the standards of education for recruiting the police and enhanced the proper selection process of the officers in each department. Thus, the policing process contributed to the decline in crimes in the US from 1991 to 2012.
In sum up, the decline of crime rates in the US declined from 1991-2012 due to several factors. First, the changes in the prison to increase to accommodate more culprits helped to reduce the incidence of crimes by the same perpetrators. Strict measures by the political leaders led to a decline in crimes unexpectedly. Secondly, the increase in the number of police recruited helped to curb crimes because more patrols and police per unit area enabled to combat crimes. Lastly, the policing organization ensured that all departments in the police sector work in coordination, which helped to reduce the rate of crimes. Therefore, the price of crimes in the US declined from 1991-2012 due to the discussed factors.
Blumstein, A., Wallman, J., & Farrington, D. (Eds.). (2006). The crime drop in America. Cambridge University Press.
Siegel, L. J., Schmalleger, F., & Worrall, J. L. (2017). Courts and criminal justice in America. Pearson.