The Relationship between Workplace Violence, Nurses’ Intention to Leave, and Nurses’ Job Satisfaction in Jordan

Background

Nurse’s job satisfaction is an important indicator of their intention to stay. It affects the performance and quality of work delivered in healthcare centers. Since 1986, various hospital administrations have been struggling with increased rate of nurse turnover (Aiken et al., 2002). Nursing shortage had become apparent and attracted research from various bodies to ascertain the main cause for this. Workplace violence is one of the scenario which has contributed to dissatisfaction of the nurses (Ayranci, 2005). Nursing profession requires motivation from all sides to promote delivery. These are people who work for long hours to save lives of the individuals. The number of violence in the world is increasing. Most of them emanate from the internal environment while other externalies contribute insignificant amount (Voon et al., 2011).

Have any questions about the topic? Our Experts can answer any question you have. They are avaliable to you 24/7.
Ask now

Emergency department is more vulnerable to violence. The recent research indicate that healthcare providing service are exposed to more workplace violence compared to any other sector. The number of nurses who have experienced workplace violence stands at 75 %( Barling et al., 2009). This figure is comparable to other countries which are struggling with the menace. It has been documented that nurses are the first people to meet in the emergency department. They spend most of their time taking care of the patients. Therefore, they stand at risk of any violence which come along. Victimization from the clinical officers has not abated since decade. They limit free service delivery and hence deter attraction of new nurses. In Jordan the rate of turnover per year is estimated to be 36.6 %( Boyle &Hasset, 2008). Turnover in this case represent the number of nurses who leaves the profession and seeks other ventures. Additionally, the cost related to turnover are about $25,000 up to 88,000 per year per nurse (Buerhaus, 2009). These cost are related to training, hiring of new staff and orientation programmer.

There exist various types of violence which nurses undergo while at places of work. One of it is physical violence (Contino, 2002). This is attempt to physically assault the nurse. This mostly happens from outside world. For example, family members of the patient can decide to assault the nurse due to various reasons. Second, we have emotional violence. This comes from the pressure of work. Nurses are busy people who work for long hours. They are entrusted with care giving to patients. They spend their better times at healthcare providing facilities and have little time to interact with family members. It is sometime tiresome and demotivates them. Additionally, administrators amount a lot of work to them. They are required to deliver within a small time frame. When all these are combined, they have an effect of stressing the nurses. Lastly, we have nurse to nurse violence (Cortelyou et al., 2010). It involves the professions among themselves. This is normally witnessed in any set up where people meet. Some face discouragement from colleagues which prevents them from performing to the expected state. Most of the researches in Jordan have focused on intentions of the nurses to stay.

Nurses’ Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction is defined as the positive affection that one’s feels while at place of work. Two factors have been reported to cause dissatisfaction among nurses in Jordan. Poor pay is contributing to high rate of turnover (Faller & Gates, 2011). Second, lack of humble environment to promote professional growth. Nurses are not allowed to grow in their field due to the nature of work. Few nurses are employed and hence increasing workload. This leaves them with no time to adapt to the new changes which are happening in the field. Variables which increase job satisfaction are like; personal growth, leadership, good working environment and experience. The current shortage of nurse is affecting care services negatively (Gates et al., 2011). More cases which need attention of the professionals are arising but the workforce is not enough to address the same. There is need to retain what we have by motivating the current staff, instead of embracing new and less skilled professionals. Continuous motivation would encourage nurses to deliver and maintain their jobs.

Intent to Leave

Nurses comprises the largest workforce in hospitals. They can be found in every department since they are needed to offer care services. It is due to this reason they stand high risk of being exposed to violence at place of work. The intention of nurse to leave is fueled by various factors which surrounds the working environment (Heyney et al., 2003). If the work place is not conducive for work to be done, then the professional nurses opt to leave. Labour turnover does not happen abruptly. There are various symptoms which can tell the possibility of retaining nurses in a healthcare providing facility (Ladebo et al., 2008). The very first one is salary. This is the highest cause of turnover. If they are not well remunerated, there is a high possibility of leaving job.

The second one is fewer years in the job. This means that one is not well versed with the nursing job and hence lack some skills which are required to sustain in such work. As alluded earlier, nursing profession goes beyond normal training. One has to possess various traits which would enable him or her deliver accordingly. Moreover, demographic variable also plays part in turnover. It entails being a male or female, single or married (LeBlanc &Kelloway, 2002). They can be ignored but have much influence on performance and persistence to work. A study revealed that old nurses could sustain more in job than young nurses. This can be argued that the old people have more experience than the younger generation. Turnover has enumerable number of effects to the healthcare system. It comes along with huge cost which healthcare providers struggle to curb. From the previous paragraphs, we have noticed that the cost of replacing one nurse is close to$25,000 in a year (O’Moore & Crowdy, 2011). If the rate of turnover continues to increase, it therefore means more funds will be required to facilitate replacement of the ones who have exited. Services delivered also declines. The number of patients attended by one nurse will increase. The higher the number of patients handled per given time, the lower the quality of services (Sofield & Salmond, 2003).

Significance and Rationale

Nurses are exposed to higher risks than other workers in various industries. High rates of turnover is decreasing the growth of nursing. It negatively contributes to services offered to patients (Taris & Schreurs, 2009). It has increased the death rate in the healthcare centers. Turnover rate is increasing and it might weaken nursing. To achieve the observed results, three measurement tools were used. The first one is workplace violence scale. This is where number of violence witnessed are recorded. Nurses are interrogated to determine the rate at which the cases happen. Then second one is job satisfaction scale and turnover intention scale. Reduction of work violence should be the first strategy for any administration. It can be achieved by educating staff on the need to understand behaviors which results to violence.

Conclusion

Violence in the nursing profession is greatly affecting service delivery in a negative manner. Jordan has been faced with turnover of nurses. It has been contributed by low payment and poor working environment. The professionals are not allowed time to develop themselves. Dissatisfaction at place of work makes the nurses aspire to leave. Further research should be conducted to identify some of the remedies that can be employed to solve the problem.

 

References

Aiken, L., Clarke, S., Sloane, D., Sochalski, J., & Silber, J. (2002). Hospital nurse staffing and patient mortality, nurse burnout, and job dissatisfaction. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 1987-1994.

Ayranci, U. (2005). Violence: recognition, management and prevention. The Journal of Emergency Medicine, 28, 361-365.

Barling, J., Dupre, K. E., & Kelloway, K. E. (2009). Predicting Workplace Aggression and Violence. The Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 671-92.

Boyle, D. J., & Hasset –Walker, C. (2008). Individual level and socio-structural characteristics of violence: An Emergency Department study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23, 1011-1026.

Buerhaus, P., Donelan, K., DesRoches, C., & Hess, R. (2009). Still making progress to improve the hospital workplace environment? Results from the 2008 National Survey of Registered Nurses. Nursing Economics, 27(5), 99-105.

Contino D. (2002). How to slash costly turnover. Nursing Management, 33, 10–13.

Cortelyou, K., Unruh, L., & Fottler, M. (2010). The effect of work environment on intent to leave the nursing profession: a case study of bedside registered nurses in rural Florida. Health Services Management Research, 23, 185-192.

Faller, M., & Gates, M. (2011). Work related burnout, job satisfaction, intent to leave and nurse assessed quality of care among travel nurses. Journal of Nursing Administration, 41(2), 71-77.

Gates, D., Gillespie, G., & Succop, P. (2011). Violence against nurses and its impact on stress and productivity. Nursing Economics, 29(2), 59-67.

Hegney, D., Plank, A., & Parker, V. (2003) Workplace violence in nursing in Queensland, Australia: a self reported study. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 9, 261-268.

Ladebo, O. J., Awotunde, J. M., & AbdulSalaam-Saghir, P. (2008). Coworkers’ and supervisor interactional justice: Correlates of extension personnel’s job satisfaction, distress, and aggressive behavior. Journal of Behavioral & Applied Management, 9(2), 206-225. Retrieved from http://www.ibam.com/pubs/jbam/articles/vol9/No2/JBAM_9_2_6.pdf

LeBlanc, M. M., & Kelloway, K. (2002). Predictors and Outcomes of workplace violence and aggression. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 444-453.

O’Moore, M., & Crowley, N. (2011). The clinical effects of workplace bullying: A critical look at personality using SEM. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 4(1), 67-83.

Sofield, L., & Salmond, S. (2003). Workplace violence: Focus on verbal abuse and intent to leave the organization. Orthopedic Nursing, 22(4), 274-283.

Taris, T. W., & Schreurs, P. G. (2009). Well-being and organizational performance: An organizational-level test of the happy-productive worker hypothesis. Work & Stress, 23(2), 120-136.

Voon, M.L., Lo, M.C., Ngui, K.C., & Ayob, N.B. (2011). The influence of leadership styles on employees’ job satisfaction in public sector organizations in Malaysia. International Journal of Business, Management and Social Sciences, 2(1), 24-32. Retrieved from http://www.ijbmss-ng.com/vol2no1_ijbmss/ijbmss-ng-vol2-no1-pp24-32.pdf