The Re-forging of Christendom: The Theological and political impact of the reformation

From the Excerpts of Martin Luther’s Ninety- Five Theses and Johann Tetzel’s sermon on Indulgences, we can get the fact that having become increasingly alarmed at the extravagant and spiritually destructive claims offered by indulgence preachers to the Christians of Wittenberg’s neighboring electorate, Martin Luther’s motivation and pressure can be seen. He presents his Ninety- Five Thesis as an invitation to his intellectual peers on the subject on indulgence and the abuses associated with them. The sub-commissioner, Tetzel, participates in the disputation his motivation and pressure being the written claims on the indulgence by Martin Luther and criticizes the Theses presented by Martin Luther. The pressure Luther receives from the critics of Tetzel, he refutes specific points by beginning with an attack on the Scholastic tripartite division of penance as scripturally unfounded and concludes with a direct reproach of Tetzel’s insinuation of Luther as a heretic (Spielvogel et al.241).

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When examining the map of Europe at the time of reformation, some of the areas affected by the reformation included Germany, the Baltics and Scandinavia which were mostly Lutheran churches, Switzerland, France, Netherlands, France, Hungary and Scotland, on the other hand were reformed. In Northern Europe, most countries became influenced into Protestantism except Ireland. Central Europe was not very much affected, but southern Europe on the other hand was not affected at all.

The timeline of the reformation of the Protestantism in Europe was between 1483 1nd 1546. In 1517, martin Luther made a protest against the catholic practice of indulgence by nailing the 95 theses, in 1521; He was summoned to answer questions before Charles V Holy Roman Emperor. In 1525, an anti-Baptist movement began. In 1526, the Bible Translation into English was published. In 1531, Ulrich Zwingli was killed in the battle between protestants and Catholics in Switzerland. In 1534 all catholic links were broken. In 1559, John Knox helped to establish a protestant church of Scotland (Spielvogel et al.244).


Work Cited

Spielvogel, Jackson J. Westrern Civilisation: A brief History : Comprehensive Volume. Belmont,             CA” Thomson/ Wadsworth, 2008. Print.

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