Global warming is the general rise in global temperature as a result of the increase in the concentration of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere (Crate and Nutall 2). The major cause of global warming includes anthropogenic forcing, which constitutes human activities that either limit absorption of greenhouse gasses from the atmosphere or enhance the production and release of more greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere (Memmott et al. 715). The process has led to increased cases of climate change and its effects. Such an increase in temperature could lead to increased evaporation rates, which in turn leave the soil with a high concentration of salts (Root et al. 57). Consequently, soil salinity would increase and affect Brassica Rapa in various ways as would be determined in the experiment.
In the past century, the temperature has gradually increased due to the accumulation of more greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere (Paerl and Valerie 1350). The gasses reflect the infrared radiation from the earth’s surface, and since the radiation cannot escape to the outer space, temperature on the earth rises (Mendelsohn, William and Daigee 754). Furthermore, there is a positive correlation between the rise in temperature and salinization of the soil (Parmesan 1869). In other words, the two parameters are directly proportional, whereby increasing temperatures accelerate evaporation rates. Consequently, increased evaporation leaves less soil moisture while raising the salt concentration levels (Taylor 881).
Soil salinization has many effects including changes in soil quality and associated impacts. Most living organisms thrive in specific concentrations of salinity, whether marine or terrestrial (Ashraf and McNeilly 158). In the soil, for instance, plants are adapted to specific salt content levels, and any changes could result in detrimental implications on the biological diversity of affected areas (Chinnusamy et al. 440). Other than biodiversity and ecological problems, economic concerns would also rise in case food crops and cash crops are affected. Organisms such as some Brassica Rapa species are food crops, and changes in soil salinity and temperature would make it difficult to grow them. At the same time, during rainfall, the concentrated soils are washed by stormwater to water bodies such as rivers and lakes as well as the marine ecosystem (Bui 15). Alteration of salinity levels and temperature of both freshwater and marine ecosystems would significantly affect organisms in such habitats.
Brassica Rapa is an angiosperm (flowering plant) that belongs to the family of Brassicacaceae. The species has different tolerance to both temperature and salinity under different levels of concentration (Zhang et al. 65). The species is a good choice for the experiment because of its faster germination rate and rapid life cycle, which makes it easier to monitor during the experiment. Brassica Rapa species such as turnip and Chinese cabbage are important nutritional sources of food for people (Kumar et al. 6). The species not only has an ecological significance but also economic importance because of its demand in most countries. Consequently, the determination of the effects of temperature and salinity on such plants is crucial because of their importance.
The purpose of this experimental research is to determine the joint effect of temperature and salinity on Brassica Rapa and help in predicting its survival and ways of improving the species with the increasing cases of global warming and climate change. Given the ecological and economic importance of Brassica Rapa, the experiment will help in projecting how the species would behave under different levels of stress and help in ensuring its survival. For example, the subjection of the species to different salt leveled solutions such as 0, 4, 8, 12 g/L and different temperatures such as 25, 30, 35 C on Brassica Rapa would provide insight on how the species would grow and tolerate various stress levels.
In conclusion, the rising temperatures due to increased emission of greenhouse and global warming have put more stress on living organisms. With such trends, it is important to analyze their effects on plants particularly in terms of temperature and salinity. Rising temperature leads to increase evaporation and concentration of salts in the soil. Experimenting with such effects would help project future outcomes and survival of species such as Brassica Rapa.
Ashraf, M., and T. McNeilly. “Salinity Tolerance in Brassica Oilseeds.” Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, vol. 23, no. 2, 2004, pp. 157-174.
Bui, E. N. “Soil Salinity: A Neglected Factor in Plant Ecology and Biogeography.” Journal of Arid Environments, vol. 92, 2013, pp. 14-25.
Crate, Susan A., and Mark Nuttall, eds. Anthropology and Climate Change: from Encounters to Actions. Routledge, 2016.
Chinnusamy, Viswanathan, Andre Jagendorf, and Jian-Kang Zhu. “Understanding and Improving Salt Tolerance in Plants.” Crop Science, vol. 45, no. 2, 2005, pp. 437-448.
Kumar, Manu, et al. “Molecular Breeding in Brassica for Salt Tolerance: Importance of Microsatellite (SSR) Markers for Molecular Breeding in Brassica.” Frontiers in Plant Science, vol. 6, 2015.
Mendelsohn, Robert, William D. Nordhaus, and Daigee Shaw. “The Impact of Global Warming on Agriculture: a Ricardian Analysis.” The American Economic Review, 1994, pp. 753-771.
Memmott, Jane, et al. “Global Warming and the Disruption of Plant-Pollinator Interactions.” Ecology Letters, vol. 10, no. 8, 2007, pp. 710-717.
Parmesan, Camille. “Influences of Species, Latitudes and Methodologies on Estimates of Phenological Response to Global Warming.” Global Change Biology, vol. 13, no. 9, 2007, pp. 1860-1872.
Paerl, Hans W., and Valerie J. Paul. “Climate Change: Links to Global Expansion of Harmful Cyanobacteria.” Water Research, vol. 46, no. 5, 2012, pp. 1349-1363.
Root, Terry L., et al. “Fingerprints of Global Warming on Wild Animals and Plants.” Nature, vol. 421, no. 6918, 2003, pp. 57-60.
Taylor, F. W. “The Greenhouse Effect and Climate Change.” Reports on Progress in Physics, vol. 54, no. 6, 1991, pp. 881.
Zhang, Xuekun, et al. “Recent Progress in Drought and Salt Tolerance Studies in Brassica Crops.” Breeding Science, vol. 64, no. 1, 2014, pp. 60-73.