the human biology

Hormones are needed for the prompt identification of sperms in a woman’s reproductive system following sexual intercourse. They also aid in the washing of semen by a method known as capacitation. It works by scraping the glycoprotein layer from the body. Hormones also release chemicals that aid in the direction of sperms to the oocyte for fertilization. Since embryo implantation typically entails severe uterine lining attacks, progesterone hormones are in charge of thickening and reinforcing the uterine walls. This is accompanied by estrogen, which is responsible for the development of the endometrium in the uterus. The luteinizing hormone is vital for the synthesis of androgen, which in turn helps in differentiation, proliferation as well as secretion of the follicle cells. Androgen is also essential for development of the myometrium of the uterus (pp. 130-134).
Progestin and oestrogen are progesterone analogues that are dominantly used in development of contraceptives. Using these hormones makes possible to develop reliable steroids that help in pregnancy prevention. In order for contraceptives to function, they are combined with oestrogen that is required for promoting negative feedback on the pituitary. In turn, this helps in development of progesterone receptors from the day one to the day twenty-one of the menstrual cycle. These pills are not normally taken from the day twenty-two to the day twenty-eight hence leading to immediate break followed by bleeding withdrawal. On the other hand, progestin is required to lower protein and sugar levels in the cervical fluids. This is paramount because it interferes with the sperm viability. This hormone is also essential for thickening the cervical mucus as well as suppression of the cilia in fallopian tubes. As a result, it is harder for the sperms to penetrate; hence the ability to impregnate the woman is reducing (pp. 135-137).
Infertility among men can be described by two major terms namely oligospermia which refers to low sperm count or aspermia which means there are no sperms at all. This may occur because of deficiency in sperm production or blockage of transport system. The reason for that may be a poor diet, especially lack of fatty acids, zinc and vitamins B12, C and E, increasing scrotal temperature, using tightly fitting underwear, prolonged hot baths and excessive consumption of alcohol. Exposure to x-ray radiations and other chemical pollutants like phthalates also lead to male infertility (pp. 148-150). The best way to treat male infertility is to avoid all the above-mentioned triggers even though in vitro fertilization can be the option when the situation is getting worse (p. 151).
Spermatogenesis normally starts during puberty when a boy reaches the age of twelve to fifteen years old. The spermatogenic cycles usually take 16 days while the entire spermatogenesis process normally takes up to 64 days. Enhanced secretion of gonadotropin releasing the hormone that takes place in the hypothalamus triggers and regulates spermatogenesis. The hypothalamic pituitary is vital for release of gonadotropin hormone that boosts the process of spermatogenesis. This implies that the hypothalamic pituitary is responsible for the secretion of follicle stimulating hormone as well the luteinising hormone. Eventually the follicle-stimulating hormone initiates development of testosterone receptors in sertoli cells and thus makes testosterone support spermatogenesis (pp. 121-123). Hence, hormones are very essential in determining fertility among both men and women, so the need to know about their effective control and regulation is of great importance.

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