The majority of nations across the globe, particularly nations experiencing urbanization, are fighting against contamination and shortages of water because of agriculture and energy production. Water is an inherent part of social-economic growth and evenly crucial to the survival of human beings. According to WHO (2018), there are about 2.2 billion individuals in nations undergoing urbanization, which lack access to safe water due to contamination. In both contamination and shortage, agriculture plays a significant role. As pointed by FAO (2017), agriculture accounts for 70% of water decrease around the globe. It is the leading cause of water reduction because of inappropriate agricultural methods like elevated nutrients concentration, sediment loads, and fecal coliforms. High levels of sediment loads cause challenges in the process of water treatment, which also influences macroinvertebrates and fish. Lack of enough sources of water has adverse impacts on crop production. In this way, the quality of water in regions undergoing urbanization has been the growing issue following the high population that needs high demands and can suffer inadequate sanitation services.
Around the world, there are approximately 4.5 billion individuals who lack access to clean water. Contaminated water spread diseases, as it denies individuals the purest form of hygiene. Based on the results by WHO, individuals use about 75% of every water withdrawals for the energy production. People use water to cool electrical-generators that produces power plant as a stream leading to thermal contamination. Drilling and fuel mining can pollute groundwater with mineral elements excavated during the processes. It can lead to the pollution of clean water and the ecosystem through the acid rock drainage process. People can address the problem of water shortage with improved infrastructure along with techniques that involve artificial groundwater recharge methods. To address water pollution, individuals can use safe energy solutions and organic agriculture because of agriculture and the production of energy. These solutions can help eradicate the increasing problems of water pollution and scarcity sustainably.
Solutions to Water Scarcity Problems
To emphasize the severity of water scarcity both on a global scale and locally, it is essential to communicate to the public about the startling data. Each continent across the globe suffers water shortage. More than 2 billion individuals suffer water scarcity, and 1 billion individuals lack access to clean water. However, to solve this problem, it is imperative to look at water infrastructure. According to Castro (2018), the solution involves every element of infrastructure, including and not limited to the structure like storage tanks, wells, dams, aqueducts, treatment facilities, and pipes. The infrastructure should include the utilization of landscape management restoration approaches and natural infrastructure, sustainable, and conservation management. Poor infrastructure causes water shortage. On the other hand, improved infrastructure will decrease water wastage and cause the reduction of individuals looking for clean water.
Individuals can combat the issue of water depletion through artificial groundwater recharge. Based on the mismanagement of the use of water and the growing population growth around the globe, the reserves of water across the world have been decreasing drastically (Castelo, 2018). The natural strategy that the earth refills the groundwater is the hydrologic cycle. The problem with the period is that it tends to be a slower and fails to meet the requirements of the population growth. Individuals can solve this problem by interjecting water into the aquifers. However, there are various ways we can use to attain this. The first technique is Direct Surface Recharge. Into a shallow water mass, excess water passes and collocates while seeping to the ground naturally. The permeability and porosity of the rocks ascertain the usefulness of this technique. The second method is the Indirect Subsurface Recharge. It involves injection of water process, which happens beneath the crust of the earth, also referred to as direct injection, as people inject water into deep aquifers. As a natural purification, the recommendation of water treatment is essential and leased with this method.
Water Pollution Solution
The contamination of water is the second problem. Agriculture and production of energy affect the quality of water adversely. The use of clean energy methods is the solution that individuals can use to solve contamination caused by traditional energy production. Clean energy decreases emissions as well as it is renewable and cannot cause environmental harm or deplete natural resources. Various options exist that lead to the generation of clean energy. According to Kinhal (2018), wind energy utilizes turbines, which aids conversion of kinetic energy into mechanical energy, then produce electric power. Solar power utilizes panels of photovoltaic, which convert the heat from the sun to electric power. The process that generates energy, which t tends to use waves of oceans to produce electrical power is the ocean wave energy. However, there are several alternatives for cleaning energy generation. The good thing with these options is that they do not pollute the environment and are renewable.
Agriculture is the leading cause of contamination of water. Inappropriate use of agricultural methods raises the concentrations of nutrients, sediment loads, and fecal coliforms, which can pollute drinking water sources and groundwater. To solve this problem, it is essential to utilize sustainable agriculture. Sustainable agriculture integrates various strategies to make sure that there are sustainability and reduction in chemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides, which can cause harm to water, soil, climate, and air (UCSUSA, 2017). Employing practices of sustainable agriculture, there can be a reduction in pesticides and herbicides utilized in agriculture. Besides, planting cover crops replenishes nutrients as well as building soil health. Cover crops also reduce the need for herbicides, as they keep weeds in check. Integrated pest management is another example that can reduce pollution. These methods involve biological and mechanical controls, which individuals can apply to manage the pest population under the supervision and diminish the application of chemicals.
High demands of the population for food and energy increase strain on the contamination and shortage of water problems. Pollution and deficiency of water increase the inaccessibility of clean water. The solution to the water shortage issue is through infrastructure improvement utilized for the treatment of water, delivery, storage, and structures. Individuals can as well solves this problem with the artificial groundwater recharging methods, which replenishes the underground aquifers. Water pollution solutions involve the use of solar power, wind, and ocean wave powers that are sustainable renewable methods of generating energy and can diminish the level of carbon. The other solution is the utilization of green agriculture. Techniques used in organic agriculture tend to decrease the pesticides and herbicides that lead to pollution of climate, air, water, and soil. The alternatives offered are realistic solutions to the problems confronted by individuals in nations going through urbanization and can offer them a sustainable yield of energy and agriculture while reducing the contamination and scarcity of water.
UCSUSA. (2017). What Is Sustainable Agriculture? Retrieved October 02, 2019, from https://www.ucsusa.org/food-agriculture/advance-sustainable-agriculture/what-is-sustainable-agriculture#.XBhZrPZKjyU
FAO. (2017, July). Water for Sustainable Food and Agriculture. Retrieved October 02, 2019, from http://www.fao.org/3/a-i7959e.pdf
UCSUSA. (2017, November 07). How it Works: Water for Electricity. Retrieved October 02, 2019, from https://www.ucsusa.org/clean-energy/energy-water-use/water-energy-electricity-overview#.XBhPhPZKjyU
WHO. (2018, February 22). Progress on drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene. Retrieved October 02, 2019, from https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/jmp-2017/en/
Castelo, J. (2018, October 03). How Artificial Groundwater Recharge Can Combat the World’s Water. Retrieved October 02, 2019, from https://worldwaterreserve.com/water-crisis/artificial-groundwater-recharge/
Castelo, J. (2018, November 15). 9 Viable Water Scarcity Solutions for the 21st Century. Retrieved October 02, 2019, from https://worldwaterreserve.com/water-crisis/water-scarcity-solutions-for-the-21st-century/
Kinhal, V. (2018). Ways to Stop Pollution. Retrieved October 02, 2019, from https://greenliving.lovetoknow.com/ways-stop-pollution