Properties and Reactivity of Aqueous Solutions

Depending on the elements or ions which the compounds are made of, they can be classified as either organic or inorganic. In a solution, these compounds can exist as miscible or immiscible. The inorganic compounds exist as ions in solutions when they are miscible. Ions are atoms that have missing or extra electrons. In case an atom’s outermost orbital losses or gains electrons, then an ion is formed. Molecules, on the other hand are formed when a covalent bond exists between two or more atoms. The electrical conductivity of aqueous solutions depends on the number of free ions and is considers to be among the physical property of a solution whose effects can be observed as they move from one direction to another depending on the electric current. The solutions substance can be classified as strong, weak, or non- conductor depending on ability to conductor of electricity. Strong electrolytes are those that are entirely ionized; the weak electrolyte are those that are partially ionized. Electrolytes are those that are not ionized at all. The strong electrolytes are good conductors of electricity, while weak electrolyte poor conductors. Additionally, the non-electrolytes are non-conductors. The electrical conductance is considered to be evidence of chemical reaction since it changes with time as the reaction continues. The objective of the experiment is to determine properties and reactivity of aqueous solutions and how solubility of compounds affects the conductivity. The hazards in the experiment are due to production of poisonous gases such as Cl2, and safety precautions entail using proper personal protective equipment.

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Result Analysis

HC2H3O2 (aq) is a poor conductor of electricity, it is a weak electrolytic and partially get ionized to H+(aq), C2H3O2 (aq), and HC2H3O2 (aq). NH4OH (aq), is also a weak to medium conductor of electricity and also partially ionized to form NH4+(aq), OH (aq), and NH4OH (aq). When HC2H3O2 (aq) + NH4OH (aq), are placed in a solution, then it conducts electricity to form a bright a red light and strong electrolyte where it fully ionizes to form H2O2 , C2H3O2, NH4-, and OH (aq).

Discussion

The conductivity of electrolytes is performed by placing the circuit of electron in a solution of the compound to be tested. After carrying out the test, the electrodes must be rinsed to deionize water after each test to remove the ions from the electrodes. The conductivity reading of the tap water gives bright red glow and dim green glow while distilled water gives dim red glow and no green glow. The tap water has some form of ions that conducts electricity hence bright red glow and dim green glow. The distilled water, on the other hand, has no ions because it has been de-ionized, thus gives a dim red glow. The conductivity takes place only by the movement of molecules. Thus, dim light, while for tap water; it uses the ions and molecules. NaCl solution gives a very bright red glow because it gets ionized fully to form the ions of Na+ and Clwhich conduct electricity. The reading of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) gives a medium red glow and no green glow was formed since the compound does not dissolve in water. It fails to form ions with water molecules and no conduction of electricity. From the observation of the bulbs, the tap water, NaCl (aq), HCl (aq), and CaNO3)2 (aq) gives a bright colour hence were strong electrolytes. NH4OH, C12H22O11, and CaCO( s) were weak. The reason is that the strong electrolytes ionized fully in water while the weak ones did not. Additionally, poor conductors did not fully ionize either.

The electrical conductivity reading of 0.1HC2H3O2 (aq) and NH4OH (aq) were giving dim red light and no green light when each was used separately while it was giving bright red light and dim green light when used as a mixture. When the two compounds were used separately, they were ionized to give fewer numbers of ions compared to when they were mixed. The net ionic equation indicates that two separate ions can combine to form different products. The type of reaction that occurred is a single displacement reaction.

There was no electrical conductivity in the distilled water before blowing CO2, but after having it blown in, it became a conductor. For 0.1 Molar Ba(OH)­2, it was a good conductor the solution and even a stronger electrolyte when used alone. When CO2 was used, it become weak electrolyte and could not conduct electricity as the reading indicated medium red light. The difference in conductivity is due to the formation of insoluble BaCO3. The net ionic exchange in the reaction indicates an exchange of ions by the compounds to form a different compound. The type of reaction is a displacement reaction since CO3 was displaced from H2CO3. Solubility rules were used to separate the ions for the displacement of their particles. The position of the elements that form compound in the reactivity series is used to predict the product to be formed. The conductivity gives information on how reactive an element is depending on the number of electrolytes. In writing net equations, it helps in determining which elements to loss and which ones to gain electrons.

The commercial products which have strong electrolytes are Gatorade energy drink, baking soda solution, and vinegar. The weak electrolytes are 5% dextrose intravenous (IV) solution, and the non-electrolytes are rubbing Alcohol. This depends how bright the reading of the bulbs was since the current was moving by the ions. Gatorade Energy Drinks contains water, sugar, dextrose, citric acid, salts, and sodium citrates. The compounds were ionized to form ions which transferred the currents. Electrometallurgy is the practical application of the electrolytic.

Conclusion

The electric conductance of aqueous depends on the ionization of the compound that is in solution. Based on the results in Part I, it is deduced that conductivity depends on the ions that are formed and the number of ions. The number of ions and solubility affects the ability to conduct electricity. The conductivity can be used to prove the occurrence of chemical reaction since the most reactive elements are those that have high conductivity. The lab technique that was used in this experiment is to determine the conductivity of electrolytes. The result was as per the expectations since those elements that are high reactivity were of high conductivity. The practical application of the experiment is in electrometallurgy which involves obtaining pure elements of metals from metallic compounds such as potassium and sodium.