The population of India and China has always been very high compared to other countries. In particular, the rural population of the two countries is relatively high compared to the urban areas. In China, more than 70% of the country lives in rural areas since its independence proclamation. In India, out of 121 crores, 83.3 live in the rural areas, while only 37.7 crore stay in the urban areas (Chai and Kartik 166). One key factor responsible for this trend is the availability of agricultural land; both rural India and China have resources available for farming including good soil, stable climate, and plenty of water. The Chinese rural usually grow paddy rice that is more productive than wheat; the availability of food encourages the rising growth of population in the areas. The rural population also encourages more births; in China, for instance, Mao encouraged the people to increase in number to make them stronger (Chai and Kartik 167). Furthermore, the rural areas in both countries have vast land that can be inhibited by the rising population.
There are various factors that may facilitate rural to urban migration in both countries. Economic factors such as job opportunities, improve housing conditions, availability of electricity, and better amenities can motivate people to move to the urban centers. Poverty is very high in the rural areas; with the existing health, education, and finance advancement in the urban areas, many people would opt to move to the cities to access the facilities (Chai and Kartik 167). In addition to this, rural areas lack income generating opportunities; farming can only provide sufficient income to support the households temporarily. Many people would, therefore, wish to move to the city centers to get employment opportunities.
There are still benefits to the populations remaining in rural areas in both India and China. Even with the increasing inflation in the urban areas, the populations will still always have accessibility to affordable food and water (Chai and Kartik 168). The rural population also has the social benefit of maintaining their cultural practices. It is thus an aspect that is merely possible in the urban areas, where assimilation of different cultures is common.
Chai, Joseph C. H, and Kartik C. Roy. Economic Reform in China and India: Development Experience in a Comparative Perspective. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Pub, 2006.