(Nutrition) Biochemistry


This part of the document is the first part and deal with elaborating what carbohydrates are, their potential effects on an individual, and what would happen if individual lacks carbohydrates. It briefly describes the paper. From this [part, the reader can tell that the paper is about carbohydrates; as a matter of fact, the summary outlines the rest of the paper. From the overview, we learn that the paper shall tackle carbohydrates’ classification, define the biotechnical terms related to the sugars, outline their nutritional values, delve into their metabolism, and finally conduct a SWOT analysis on carbohydrate nomenclature and intake.

List of Abbreviations

This is the part that comes after the summary/abstract of the paper. It gives a list of the used scientific symbols in the paper and elaborates on them. This is for the benefit of the reader.


The introduction starts by emphasizing the importance of food in developing the individual alongside genetic and the environment. It refers to the various research that has been conducted recently that supports this approach. The introduction gives specific information regarding the contributions of carbohydrates to the diet, their sources, and their constituents. Essentially, the introduction seeks to provide the layout of the paper so that the reader can follow through easily and understand the content in an efficient manner.

Classification and Terminology of Carbohydrates

This section deals with delineating the carbohydrates in various groups as per certain scientific bodies such as the United Nations. It outlines them into polymers and monomers and also goes ahead to give the alternative classification by the United Nations of glycemic carbohydrates and dietary fiber. This section informs the reader of the categories that they will be dealing with in the paper. The generally mentioned categories are the Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, and Polysaccharides; the United Nations approach is used only rarely and in particular circumstances. The terminology section seeks to define the concepts and terms such as sugars and starch.

Nutritional Value of Carbohydrates

This section deals with the various aspects of carbohydrates that make them end up on people’s tables often and form a significant nutritional part of their diet. Factors such as cost and high energy content are discussed as the critical factors in determining the high consumption rates of carbohydrates contribute approximately 45-60% of an individual’s daily energy needs or at least should.

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Metabolism of Carbon Hydrates

This section deals with the breakdown of carbohydrates into glucose, its storage, and the maintenance of constant blood sugar levels. The liver’s role is in regulating the sugar in the body is emphasized in terms of balancing between biosynthesis, oxidation, and storage of glucose depending on the nutritional and hormonal status of the cells, tissues, and the entire organism. This section additionally demonstrates the importance of glucose to the body and its organs. For example, the brain is singled out as requiring a continuous supply of oxygen.  Last but not least, this section proceeds to demonstrate how glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream, under what circumstances, and how various cells can be employed to ensure that the glucose level in the blood is constant such as GLUT isoforms.

Additionally, glycolysis processes are elaborated, and the entire process of energy from the carbohydrates is explained in detail from Phosphorylation of glucose, Formation of fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate to Balance of Glycolysis. While doing this analysis, glycogenesis is explored in detail, which involves obtaining glucose from non-glyceride precursors and its importance.

Sources of Mono and Disaccharide Food

This subsection details the various sources of monosaccharide and disaccharides such as milk and dairy products, fruits, horticultural products, honey, and cereals and derived products. The section has detailed these sources and their percentage of carbohydrates so that the reader can have a clear understanding of what is required in terms of high concentration of carbohydrates intake. Readers must know this so that they can be well informed on how to select a balanced diet.

SWOT Analysis on Nomenclature, Composition of Sugar Foods and Ingestions

This is the second last part of the paper and looks at the Strengths, weaknesses, threats, and opportunities characteristic of carbohydrates and their diets. The weakness lies in the lack of comprehensive data for each category of carbohydrates. In contrast, the dangers lie in the fact that the lack of information results in increased numbers of disorders such as obesity in children. The strengths are in the fact that scientific organizations have committed themselves to avail more details about the carbohydrates while the opportunity is in the form of the making of recommendations based on the findings of this new research and commitment from scientific organizations (Plaza-Díaz, Augustín, & Hernández, 2013).


This is the last part of the paper and is critical to the quality of the research.  References lend credibility to the findings and give access to additional or supportive literature on the matter. The paper has employed several research sources, which demonstrates the credibility of the research and the researcher’s commitment. Consultation and collaboration are essential in scientific research.

Critical Analysis

This article is a credible and robust analysis of the topic of carbohydrates. It is well done and has detailed every aspect of the metabolism of carbohydrates. To add to its integrity and clarity, are the sources used. Every source is peer-reviewed, and most of them are from reputable journals and government departments such as the United States Department of Agriculture. The paper’s outline is well done; it logically guides the reader from step to step, thus enhancing the reader’s understanding of the entire paper (Arora, Mittal, & Pasari, 2017).

However, in my opinion, the paper has missed out on the conclusion, which is a weakness. The reader is welcomed by an introduction that sums up the paper well but is left hanging after the last chapter. This can interfere with the learning proves, the brain is wired to acknowledge a clearly indicated beginning and an ending that ties everything together. This structure helps in the learning process and making ideas set in the brain. I would add a conclusion to the paper that strongly summarizes the content and gives the readers a rallying statement they can live with. The report does not point the reader in a specific direction but gives him facts; however, the brain appreciates a stand that it can associate with, especially in such matters concerning experts and non-specialists. However, the paper is well done and credible (Ormrod & Leedy, 2012).

Last but not least, the paper does not mention concrete experiments that have been conducted in this area; it only mentions the research that has been conducted and their results. I would cite specific methods that resulted in particular findings and make reliable recommendations to the writer that demonstrate confidence in my thesis.



Arora, A., Mittal, A., & Pasari, R. (2017). What makes a good researcher? http://snap.stanford.edu/class/cs224w-2011/proj/anmittal_Finalwriteup_v1.pdf

Ormrod, J. E., & Leedy, P. D. (2012). Practical research: Planning and design. Pearson.

Plaza-Díaz, J., Augustín, O. M., & Hernández, Á. G. (2013). Food as sources of mono and disaccharides: biochemical and metabolic aspects. http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0212-16112013001000002&lang=es