Journal of Diving History Review

This article provides a comprehensive understanding regarding a number of physical experiments for divers to enhance their ability to undertake in-depth diving activities without being overwhelmed by the principles of physics. The article demonstrates the ideal gas laws which are practically applicable to divers to enhance long swimming durations in deep seawater depth without causing bends or decompression sickness.

In 1956, Edwin W. Link who was an inventor developed a simulated flight model which was used in undersea archeological investigations. Based on Edwin’s perception, an underground sea diver had the ability to maneuver effectively and efficiently at a deep depth without swimming back to the surface ad going back down frequently (Hardy, Koblick, & MacInnis, 2016). In this context, Edwin wanted to build an underwater body that would be of great assistance in sustaining deep water operations. The underwater vehicle was supposed to operate as an elevator and decompression chamber. He designed the ‘Submersible” which was featured with an eleven feet long characterized by an aluminum cylinder of three feet diameter. Internal gas pressure which was equal to water pressure was fitted at the bottom of the chamber. Inner hatches were fitted to sealed air inside the chamber and help the diver to enter the do various activities inside the chamber such as pass a solid entity(Hardy, Koblick, & MacInnis, 2016). On the outer side, the hatches were designed to help the diver to decompress safely when ascending to the surface.

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The distinct difference between atmospheric pressure and liquid pressure based on the journal is attributed to the work of Edwin. Edwin employs the principles and concepts of atmospheric pressure in his wok using he inner hatches which when sealed with the air accumulated inside the chamber, an individual can move or pass down supplies(Hardy, Koblick, & MacInnis, 2016). On the other hand, liquid pressure was also demonstrated in Edwin’s work where outer hatches were used to lower the diver to the bottom.

In September 1962, a young diver known as Stenuit Robert managed to descend 200 feet down the seawater and stayed for 24 hours, however, when the time for him to get back to the surface reached; he stayed in the freezing cold water for hours hanging as he waited to be pulled back (Hardy, Koblick, & MacInnis, 2016). According to Edward, the pressurized chamber was built to provide a safety resting place for deep sea divers as they waited to be lifted back to the deck of the vessel.

In Edward’s second phase project titled “Man in Sea”, he aimed at demonstrating how divers could work effectively at 400 feet over long durations. In this project, Edward analyzed the breathing atmosphere of divers by investigating the accuracy and reliability of gas analyzers (Hardy, Koblick, & MacInnis, 2016). The breathing atmosphere comprises of different types of gases that helps in breath mixing. The project was directed by Christian J. Lambertsen of the University Of Pennsylvania School Of Medicine as the supervisor of the medical aspect. Drawing from this notion, an underwater tent characterized by a fat rubber sausage which was eight feet long with a diameter of four feet was mounted on a rigid steel frame (Hardy, Koblick, & MacInnis, 2016). Hatches were replaced with open like entry ports on the floor of the SPID to provide easy access and necessary vertical latitude for pressure variations.

This project was deemed significant because during the low stage decompression, the diver breathed clean oxygen which in turn launched a larger external pressure in the lungs causing the inert gas to be pulled out of the individual’s tissues to prevent bends or depression sickness (Hardy, Koblick, & MacInnis, 2016). According to Edward, breathing pure oxygen over long durations under pressure leads to lung damage. The suggested alternation between compressed air and oxygen was experimented when the dive reached 30feet but showed mild symptoms of depression sickness. According to Edward, dives tend to accumulate inert gases such as nitrogen in their breathing mix. The deeper and longer they go, the more the gases accumulate to exceed the tissue’s capacity to form bubbles. At approximately 20 feet, Edward reported “sawdust feeling” that was vague in his fingers but progressed to the wrist (Hardy, Koblick, & MacInnis, 2016). During examination at the pressure chamber, no abnormal neurological finding was unraveled. After recompression of the chamber, decompression was resumed at a slower rate of four feet per hour and on 6th July Edward came out of the chamber in good condition after 92 hours of decompression.

This article was articulated with various fluid dynamic terminologies which are broadly applied in physics. Compressible is a fluid flow that has compressible abilities and allowing modification of density within a domain of interest (Hardy, Koblick, & MacInnis, 2016). Density as used in the article is the mass of a fluid per unit volume. Compressible fluid flow takes place when there is variation of density from one place to another. Based on the article, velocity is the conservation of energy in a form which it is useful in solving problems that involves fluids. Inert gas describes a gas which cannot be subjected to chemical reactions under any given condition during its use. Although noble gases have a low affiliation to react with numerous substances, they are factually experimented and inert gases are now used to avoid unwanted chemical reactions that might degrade a sample.



Hardy, K., Koblick, I., & MacInnis, J. B. (2016). Ed Link’s submerged portable inflatable dwelling (SPID). Journal of Diving History, 24(86), 42-26. Retrieved from