Introduction to the Nervous System

Amino Acids

Amino acids are chemical substances that merge to form proteins, which control fundamental biological processes in the body. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen are the primary elements that form an amino acid. Therefore, body parts that carry out body functions such as muscles, tissues, and cells contain amino acids. Besides, the amino acids are necessary for the transport and storage of nutrients that the body consumes in the form of food (Wu, 2013).

Barbiturates

Barbiturates are combinations of drugs that mainly affect the brain functioning when consumed by an individual. The drugs feature due to their ability to induce sleep and decrease the anxiety in the body. Barbiturates are very sensitive thus, a slight overdose results to body dormancy or in some cases death. The sensitivity of the drugs consequently relates to their broad application in medicine for surgery. Thiopental is an example used in enhanced interrogation by law enforcement agencies (Pappius, 2015).

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Benzodiazepines

A class of drugs applied in treating anxiety refers to the benzodiazepines. The operation of the drugs involves affecting the brain transmitters and the compounds released by nerves to initiate their functions. Benzodiazepines similarly help in the treatment of complexities, such as depression, sleeping troubles, nausea, panic attacks, vomiting and general anesthesia. Typical examples of benzodiazepines include temazepam used in sleeping problems and Midazolam used in panic disorders (Pappius, 2015).

Catecholamines

Catecholamines are body stimulants or hormones that arise due to aspects of stress in an individual. Therefore, the compounds increase the heartbeat, muscle capability, mental awareness, and blood pressure. Besides, the hormones increase movement of blood going to major organs, such as brain, kidneys, and heart. Thus, the body prepares for an immediate response (Leng & Ludwing, 2013).

Fiber Tract

Fiber tract is a bundle of nerves located in the spinal cord or the brain that have a similar origin, function, and termination in the body. The nerve collection has different roles including carrying information to the brain, transferring information within the brain and transfer of information from the brain to body parts such as muscles. Therefore, common nerves in the fiber tract include efferent, afferent, projection and association nerves (Admiral & Orden, 2012).

Neurotransmitter

Neurotransmitters are chemicals found in the brain that transfers information between the brain and the rest of the body. Therefore, the transfer of information enhances body functions, such as heartbeat, breathing, digestion, and movement of body parts. Additionally, the chemicals are responsible for mood, concentration, and body weight. However, poor diet, excessive alcohols, drug misuse, and stress might deplete neurotransmitters hence negatively altering body functions (Leng & Ludwing, 2013).

Renaline/norepinephrine

Norepinephrine is a substance that emerges from the ends of nerves and has an extensive application in the movement of the muscle. The actions of renaline cause muscles of the skeleton contracts at a rate similar to that of the heart. Fight or flight responses are the essential functions of the norepinephrine. Therefore, the body prepares for quick responses to an urgent threat through the actions of norepinephrine (Admiral & Orden, 2012).

Reuptake

Cells secrete substances or chemicals that relate to common reactions in the body. However, the same cells absorb the produced elements for various biological activities. Eventually, the cells might reabsorb the secretions through a process called reuptake. A good example is the brain chemicals that operate in their area of flow. Neurotransmitters develop from the brain nerves, but the reabsorption process enhances communication to the rest of the body from the brain (Admiral & Orden, 2012).

Serotonin

Serotonin is a form of neurotransmitter produced from the nerve cells. Formation of serotonin arises from feeding on protein-based foods such as cheese, nuts, and red meat. The chemical sends information to the brain and the rest of the body. Serotonin mainly exists in the body intestines hence to control the digestion of food in the body. However, the chemical has other functions including mood stabilization, control of depression and anxiety regulation (Leng & Ludwing, 2013).

 

References

Admiral, R., & Orden, V. (2012). A Program for the Central Nervous System Regeneration. Central Nervous System Trauma, 1(2). 167-171, doi: 10. 1089/cns.2012.1.89.

Leng, G., & Ludwing, M. (2013). Neurotransmitters and Peptides: Whispered Secrets and Public Announcements. The Journal of Physiology, 586(23), 5625-5632, doi: 10. 11113/Physiol. 2013.19836

Pappius, H. (2015). The Therapeutic Effects of Drugs in Injured Central Nervous System. Central Nervous System Trauma, 2(2), 93-98, doi: 10. 1089/cns.2015.2.93.

Wu, G. (2013). Functional Amino Acids in Nutrition and Health. Amino Acids, 45(3), 407-411, doi: 10. 1007/S00726-013-1500-6.