Global warming refers to the overall shift in climatic conditions, which is marked by rising temperatures and irregular weather trends, such as exceptionally hot summers. Rapid deforestation and the emission of harmful greenhouse gases into the environment are the main sources of global warming (Bhatt 2). Hydrofluorocarbons and exhaust gases are examples of greenhouse gases (carbon monoxide, methane, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide). Perfumes, poisons, herbicides, and other aerosols include hydrofluorocarbons.
Droughts, storms, melting ice caps, and rising sea levels are all consequences of global warming. In Antarctica, the melting of ice has resulted in the reduction of the Adelie penguin population by 33% in the last twenty-five years. . In the Canadian Arctic the rapid increase in the amount of rainfall reduced the Peary caribou population from 24,000 to 1,100 between 1961 and 1967.a team of UN scientists stated that developing countries have twice as much a chance of suffering from the effects of global warming as industrialized nation. US the fourth largest producer of carbon dioxide in the world. The extremely high temperatures cause excessive evapotranspiration leading to drying up of surface water bodies, drop in the water table and desertification. Deserts worldwide are encroaching into arable land; this phenomenon has been witnessed in South Africa, India, North Africa Mexico and North America (Bhatt 3). Floods, cyclones and hurricanes destroy coral reefs, estuaries and lagoons. Floods and desertification are not favourable for the fertility of agricultural land thus posing a danger to food security; it also enhances the spread of pathogens and rapid growth of micro-organisms.
Reduced Energy Consumption
The energy consumption should be minimized to reduce the rate of global warming. Emissions from power plants, businesses, homes and industries contribute to at least two thirds of emissions that trap heat in Illinois. The state relies heavily on coal consequently power plants account for a quarter of the emissions. The industries should obtain at least 15% of their electricity from clean and renewable sources (bioenergy, solar and wind) by 2020. The funding on clean sources of energy should also be increased (David Timmons 41). Countries should encourage investors who deal with renewable energy sources by reducing their tax. Every building should be constructed and inhabited according to an energy efficient building code. The use of a combined heat and power (CHP) system will reduce the amount of energy because they provide both electricity and heat from a single fuel source. Energy saving bulbs reduce the energy use as well as expenditure of a household. The consumption of energy results in the production of greenhouse gases as a by-product of the process. A decrease in the amount of energy used will directly impact on the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) produced such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrogen oxides; GHGs contribute to global warming.
Energy Saving Vehicles
Vehicles should also be adjusted so that they emit a lower amount of GHGs into the atmosphere. Every country should advocate for the use of low carbon fuels in vehicles. In the USA, some states offer fuels with a lower carbon content at lower prices to campaign for the idea. Examples of such fuels are biodiesels and ethanol (Yanfei Li 388). Governments should also introduce projects that limit the amount of fuel consumption. These projects include carpooling, bicycle riding, parking management and transit promotions. Some organizations have limited parking space in to encourage the employees to use their cars less frequently or carpool as an anti-global warming campaign. Vehicles that use a low amount of energy are common in many countries such as Switzerland, USA and England. Electric vehicles do not emit any gases and are considered a clean mode of transportation. Cable cars are popular in Switzerland and are the preferred means of transport in hilly areas. Diesel engines produce energy for vehicles as well as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide and methane. These gases are the major contributors to global warming. Therefore, limiting their production will eventually increases the global climatic conditions.
Improved agricultural Practices
Some agricultural practices contribute to global warming. Nitrogenous fertilizers produce nitrogen oxides. Nitrous oxides account for 64% of harmful agricultural emissions; methane follows at 34%. The use of nutrient-trading programs would be very effective in reducing the amount of harmful emissions in farming activities. In the program, governments pay farmers to lower the amount of nutrients they release into water sources such as streams, rivers and lakes. The model benefits farmers in that it allows them to treat their water to the best quality without spending too much money. Farmers should also be encouraged to employ soil conservation measures in their activities. Studies show that there are practices that improve the soil quality; they include low input, the use of cover crops and no till. Cover crops provide a shade cover the soil thus preventing excessive evaporation of water from the ground (A. Adugna 3522). Farmers should employ other soil conservation methods such as building gabion, strip farming and terracing; these practices reduce soil erosion. Agroforestry is another effective method of curbing global warming. Nitrous oxides and methane contribute immensely to the increasing rate of global warming. Soil conservation maintains its fertility therefore enables the soil to maintain its fertility and prevent desertification. Agroforestry incorporates planting trees alongside crops. Trees are windbreakers therefore preventing soil erosion; the leaves in trees utilize excessive carbon dioxide in the atmosphere during photosynthesis. The shade provided by trees reduces the rate of evapotranspiration thus conserving moisture. The efforts to reduce moisture loss and maintain soil fertility are part of the overall strategy to curb global warming.
Moreover, governments should set up legislations that will reduce the amount of practices leading to global warming. The cap-and-trade system should be adopted in every country; it sets limits on the maximum amount of emissions a company or factory is allowed to emit and aids the firm in ensuring that it meets its objectives. Countries should introduce clean energy policies that include renewable electricity standards, increased funding for deployment an studies on clean energy technologies and extending incentives on energy tax (Scientists 2). Governments should create laws that limit the amount of greenhouse gases that farmers produce from biofuels and livestock wastes. Increasing the standard of fuel that can be used by drivers is a good method of reducing the vehicle exhaust emissions. People in the energy industry cannot risk getting imprisoned hence they will abide by these regulations. These laws will reduce the amount of GHGs produced and consequently control the rate global warming.
Global warming is a menace that has adverse effects. In the recent years, the global temperatures have increased tremendously causing the melting of glaciers and increasing se levels. Hurricanes, floods and desertification are also common occurrences. Various ways have been developed to solve this problem. They are the use of energy-saving vehicles, better farm practices and government legislations that aim at reducing the rate of global warming.
Adugna, A. Abegaz, A. & A. Cerd. “Soil erosion assessment and control in North East Wollega, Ethiopia.” Solid Earth Discussions (2015): 3511-3540.
Bhatt, Anjali Goel & Ranjana. “Causes and Consequences of Global Warming.” 2012.
David Timmons, Jonathan M. Harris & Brian Roach. The Economics of Renewable Energy. 2014. 1-53.
Scientists, Union of Concerned. “How Renewable Electricity Standards Deliver Economic Benefits.” 2013.
Yanfei Li, Guohong Tian & Hongming Xu. “Application of Biodiesel in Automative Diesel Engines.” Biodiesel- Feedstocks, Production and Applications. 2013. 388-406.