Domestic Violence Against Women in Eastern Europe

Abstract

Domestic violence is an assault or coercive behavior, such as psychological, physical, or sexual attacks by an individual against their intimate partner. This study identifies women in Eastern Europe as the most frequent victims. After an international overview of the nature of domestic violence and prevalence towards women, this study elaborates discussion concerning health issues. Besides, the study presents the risk factors among women to provide control measures to eliminate it in the community. Several organizations, along with legislative proposals, have played a vital role in increasing quality of life and controlling violence-associated with injuries between the women.

In Eastern Europe, women are not allowed to make personal decisions, express their views, or protect themselves together with their young ones for the terror of further repercussions. Several women are denied human rights, and their entire lives are taken away from them through continuous current violence risks.

Keywords: Domestic violence, domestic abuse, Eastern Europe

 

Domestic Violence against Women in Eastern Europe

Introduction

Domestic violence is among the well-known forms of torture, bringing about health problems in developing and developed countries. Such cases occur between intimately related individuals or relatives (Chisale, 2018). However, family violence comes with various adverse effects such as marriage breaking, health effects, depression, and even anxiety. The paper explores the causes of domestic violence, the consequences that result from the abuse, and the measures to employ to curb or reduce the rampant violence against women.

Causes of Women Domestic Violence

Many factors play a vital role in increasing the rate of women in domestic violence. Some of the elements include illiteracy among women and cultural aspects, such as people’s positive attitude towards beatings, and poor communication skills.

Researchers explain that most women who become domestic violence victims have a low level of education (Hill, 2019). Therefore, these women contribute very little financial support to the family, and they have no other than being housewives and powerless. Their husbands start seeing them as a burden with time, mistreating them both physically and psychologically (Hill, 2019). However, some domestic violence cases are contributed by women who are well educated and earn a lot of money. Due to their status, these women start looking down at their men and disrespect them in different instances. Feeling disrespected, such men decide to strike back (Douglass et al., 2020).

Furthermore, domestic abuse may be based on the cultural aspects of a specific country. According to researchers, women approve the abusive methods of punishment from husbands, for example, after disobeying (Krizsán & Roggeband, 2017). Moreover, some women grew up in an abusive household, and they still hold onto the same mentality seeing no problem if the incident happens in today’s society. Due to ignorance, some men take advantage and start mistreating their women (Krizsán & Roggeband, 2017).

Communication skills are another major cause of domestic violence. Ineffective communication between a couple increases the possibility of a local violence rate (Chisale, 2018). Furthermore, poor communication makes it difficult for the woman victim to seek assistance from professions; therefore, she continues suffering (Chisale, 2018).

Moreover, according to the researches carried out in Eastern Europe, men who victimize their women are short-tempered and have alcohol problems (Pojani et al., 2017). A hot-tempered husband physically harms his wife without thinking twice. On the other hand, alcohol addicts cool down through violence. Furthermore, if men have psychological disorders and jealousy, they often feel insecure wherever their women try to be successful (Agnihotri et al., 2006).

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Consequences of Domestic Violence 

Denial of Fundamental Rights

Denial of fundamental rights is the leading critical consequence of violence between girls and women. The global human rights instruments include the Convention on the eliminating the entire forms of Discrimination between women, adopted in the year 1979, the Convention on children’s rights, passed in 1989, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, asserting the essential principles of rights freedoms of each on earth (Morrison et al., 2020). These instruments are guided by a concept body of human rights that stretches beyond government and civil rights towards the leading health, education, and economic issues that impact the quality of life. Additionally, the human rights instruments call for the freedom to safety from gender neglect and abuse (Choudhry, 2019).

Furthermore, the power of these accords lies on a global agreement, together with the hypothesis that every action which harms girls and women, no matter how dangerous they are embedded in the culture, has to be eliminated (Hill, 2019).

Impacts on Children

Furthermore, children that have experienced domestic violence demonstrate behavior and health issues, such as problems with eating, sleep, and weight (Morrison et al., 2020). Children may experience challenges at school and find it difficult to develop positive and close relationships. Moreover, children might attempt to run away from their household or display suicidal tendencies (Morrison et al., 2020).

Human Development Goals Undermined

There is a growing recognition that the nations cannot reach their full abilities as long as women’s ability to contribute fully in their local area is denied. Statistics concerning the economic, social, and health coast of violence leave no doubt that violence between women demoralizes women’s improvement and economic advancement (Oliver et al., 2019). Participation of women has become crucial in the entire public growth activities, be they for the alleviation of poverty, environmental, or good leadership. Therefore, most European nations, especially in Eastern Europe, are eroding the human capital of half their number of residents through hampering the full women’s participation and involvement (Krizsán & Roggeband, 2017). Indicators of commitments of a nation towards gender quality lie in its activities in dealing with violence against women in all its forms.

Health Consequences

McGarry (2017) points out that domestic violence against women leads to far-reaching psychological and physical consequences, with inevitable outcomes. Even though physical injuries only a part of the harmful health effects on women, it is one of the observable types of violence. Research in several areas in Eastern Europe has indicated a high degree of abuse at the time of pregnancy, influencing the threat to both the mother and the unborn fetus. In the most horrible cases, the domestic violence examples result in death by their partner or ex-partner (Pojani et al., 2017).

Managing Women Domestic Violence

To address the needs of women from Eastern Europe who are victims of domestic violence, an effective multi-sectoral response should be executed. Such strategies include a provision of long-term follow-up and also to provide adequate assistance. Furthermore, all the negative attitudes, norms, and legal involvement are essential in discouraging from domestic violence (Krizsán & Roggeband, 2017). Women should be educated on how to be effective communicators and be enlightened about their rights and duties. On the other hand, men should be taught on handling their tempers and trying to understand their wives so that domestic violence cases can be reduced (Tapley & Jackson, 2019).

Pojani et al. (2017) point out that clinical experts have a vital role in ensuring that cases of domestic violence among European women have reduced. For instance, doctors should identify the primary cause of the violence and, when the damage has already occurred, a doctor may provide treatment to the women who have been violated. Moreover, doctors and nurses must provide an adequate environment in clinics where victims can be treated well and where they feel safe and in the right hands. Patients should not be stigmatized since this will cause more mental effects (Pathak et al., 2019).

Furthermore, public health workers have a crucial role in ensuring that domestic violence against women from the eastern region of Europe is dealt with. Preventive programs on women’s domestic violence is also a primary step in reducing the harm brought about by the act. Through the preventive programs, gender inequalities, its causes, effects, and even preventive measures are usually addressed, which are essential in the entire fight against domestic conflicts. Disseminating materials, audiovisual messages that are highly innovative helps project the image of women and girls in the whole village; therefore, public personnel should come up with the means of inventing the above information (Krizsán & Roggeband, 2017).

Additionally, learning centers for illiterate women should be built, and the women are advised on the importance of learning. By so doing, they will acquire well-paying jobs and help in financial provision in the family. Besides, the rights of every woman and their responsibilities in the family are to be advertised in media sites daily, in billboards, and even in the newspapers to make them aware and also to educate the society so that the level of domestic conflict may go down (Jose Medina Ariza et al., 2016).

Conclusion

Domestic violence against women may bring about various adverse effects that are significant to the health of the victims and their work performance. Such effects may include depression where women become traumatized following the mistreatment from the husband and even from society. The study explains how to handle and reduce family violence, whereby women’s rights awareness should be created to educate them and the entire community. Women should be encouraged to acquire jobs and get paid instead of entirely depending on their men.

When the impact of the conflict against women is realized, especially on their health and the nation, preventive measures are always possible and vital. Therefore, there is a need to implement various activities to suit the victims in both the urban and rural areas. Therefore, these findings can be crucial to the experts, policymakers, and even to the government agencies and the private organizations in placing strategies that will positively impact women of Eastern Europe in fighting domestic violence and their effects.

 

References

Agnihotri, A. K., Agnihotri, M., Jeebun, N., & Purwar, B. (2006). Domestic violence against women—An international concern. Torture16(1), 30-40.

Chisale, S. S. (2018). Domestic abuse in marriage and self-silencing: Pastoral care in a context of self-silencing. HTS Theological Studies74(2), 1-8.

Choudhry, S. (2019). When women’s rights are not human rights–the non‐performativity of the human rights of victims of domestic abuse within English Family Law. The Modern Law Review, 82(6), 1072-1106.

Douglass, M. D., D’Aguanno, S., & Jones, S. (2020). Women as active agents: Female perpetrators of sexual harassment and domestic abuse. Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, 14(1), 32.

Hill, J. (2019). See what you made me do: Power, control and domestic abuse. Black Inc.

Jose Medina Ariza, J., Robinson, A., & Myhill, A. (2016). Cheaper, faster, better: Expectations and achievements in police risk assessment of domestic abuse. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 10(4), 341-350.

Krizsán, A., & Roggeband, C. (2017). The gender politics of domestic violence: Feminists engaging the state in Central and Eastern Europe. Routledge.

McGarry, J. (2017). Domestic violence and abuse: An exploration and evaluation of a domestic abuse nurse specialist role in acute health care services. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 26(15-16), 2266-2273.

Morrison, F., Tisdall, E. K. M., & Callaghan, J. E. (2020). Manipulation and domestic abuse in contested contact–Threats to children’s participation rights. Family Court Review58(2), 403-416.

Oliver, R., Alexander, B., Roe, S., & Wlasny, M. (2019). The economic and social costs of domestic abuse. Research report 107. Home Office.

Pathak, N., Sohal, A., & Feder, G. S. (2017). How to enquire and respond to domestic violence and abuse in sexual health settings. Sexually Transmitted Infections93(3), 175-178.

Pojani, E., Boussauw, K., & Pojani, D. (2017). Reexamining transport poverty, job access, and gender issues in Central and Eastern Europe. Gender, Place & Culture, 24(9), 1323-1345.

Tapley, J., & Jackson, Z. (2019). Protection and prevention: Identifying, managing and monitoring priority perpetrators of domestic abuse. In A. Prycroft & D. Gough (Eds.) Multi-agency working in criminal justice 2e: Theory, policy and practice (pp. 89-104). Policy Press.