A DNA profile is the specific DNA variations that are different between unrelated people. Therefore, DNA profiling refers to the process whereby medical practitioners extract a particular DNA pattern from an individual’s bodily tissue to identify their character.
Keywords: DNA, extract, cell.
The collection of DNA samples has revolutionized human heredity studies, forensic investigations, and genealogical research. DNA is the sophisticated organic polymer found in the nucleus and mitochondria of the cells of most organisms (McGinn & Gut, 2013). DNA is present in most of the cells in the body, including body tissue, semen, hair roots, and white blood cells. Medical experts often obtain an individual’s DNA via a mouth swab which collects inner cheek cells. Chemicals are added to the nucleus to break open the cells; then, the DNA is extracted and isolated from other cell components. DNA sequencing is the procedure used to identify the exact order of the four nucleotide bases; guanine, adenine, cytosine, and thymine: a DNA Strand is made up of these bases.
First and foremost, laboratory experts extract DNA from the cells. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is done on the sample, the DNA then goes through gel electrophoresis, and finally, an automated sequencer decodes the resulting band patterns (McGinn & Gut, 2013). The most broadly used method of DNA sequencing is called Sanger or dideoxy method. The experts then supply the DNA with a mixture of all four deoxynucleotides in sufficient quantities, then a combination of labeled and limited deoxynucleotyl’s; these are labeled in different colors. DNA sequencing is useful in pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics studies how an individual’s genome difference affects their response to a drug, enabling individuals or subgroups of patients to be matched with their most appropriate drugs (Mizzi, Brock, & Mitropoulou, 2014). This application addresses the question of “which drugs best suit an individual or subgroup of people?”. For this application to be operational, DNA must be collected for all persons individually (Mizzi, Brock, & Mitropoulou, 2014). The alternative methods for this application only apply when determining the type of procedure used to collect the DNA, given that there are several ways to collect DNA.
McGinn, S., & Gut, G. I. (2013). DNA Sequencing – spanning generations. New Biotechnology, 30(4), pp. 366-372.
Mizzi, C., Brock, P., & Mitropoulou, C. (2014). Personalized pharmacogenomics profiling. Pharmacogenomics, 15(9), pp. 1223-1234.