Crime can be defined as the unwanted behavior that infringes the prevailing norms or cultural standards of a particular community. However, crime has a wide concept of definition, since it can again be defined as social construct. This means that in order to define crime, one has to be acquainted with what constitutes rights and wrongs of a certain community. While some crimes might be beyond questioning such as murder, there are some crimes that people would categorize as acceptable such as speeding or downloading movies illegally might be actions that some would deem accept. There are various categories of crimes in our society today. Some of which are highly publicized in the media and mainly the storyline in television shows and movies. As a result, people may consider themselves well-informed on the different types of crimes. However, the law can be quite complicated. These crimes can be divided into four major categories; statutory crimes, inchoate crimes, personal crimes and property crimes. Therefore, in this paper I will discuss about the personal crime which involves an offense against an individual resulting from either physical or mental harm to another person. These crimes include; assault, homicide, kidnapping, rape and false imprisonment.
Rape remains to be a huge threat to the welfare of feminine in the society. It is defined as a defilement with the women who is not one’s wife by force or threat of force without her agreement. Rape once an individual has been involved the necessary action should be taken immediately if the offender is guilty. Though more than twenty years of reform of the offence, criminal law still fails to recognize many rape cases as a crime (Rafter, Nicole & Brown, 2011). This is due to the following two major reasons; first, by concentrating on force as a component of the offence, the law requires the dupe to validate her non-resistance on the basis that the attacker was armed, or maybe by seeing serious injuries on her body, threatening her to death. Secondly, not emphasizing on the culprit’s state of awareness concerning the woman’s permission, the law unfairly requires the woman to repel. Therefore, this should be corrected by concentrating on the offender’s men rea as to the female’s agreement, rather than investigating the casualty’s behavior as a cause of assent, and the law should be changed to include extortion or threats of economic loss as constituting “force.” If the feminine says “no,” and the culprit is neglectful in believing that she has consented to intercourse, he should be guilty of rape. This crime bring out clearly the theory of psychological and mental torture since the victim feels like she has been humiliated and turned down. Her self-esteem lowers completely especially when people in the society get to know that she was defiled. Therefore, in order for her to reinstate it takes time. It also brings out behavioral theory since she rarely interacts with people freely. This is due to the stressful event she underwent which was a threat or an assault.
Psychological theories involves an individual’s actions and thoughts which do dictate one’s thinking and feelings. Therefore, the way one thinks and involves herself with the communal surroundings results greatly to the violent event. On contrary psychologists are concerned in the connotation between learning, intelligence, and personality aggressive behavior. These guys especially Sigmund Freud did not fully concentrate much about crime but he thought human behavior was as the artifact of insensible forces operating within an individual’s thoughts. Most interesting to note is that psychoanalyst August Aichorn took his time to analyze the theory of crime by experience to the traumatic communal environ which do not habitually produce violence. Afterward, he found out that most people who are exposed to hard environ with stress do not engage in a very extreme forms of misconduct. This is because in stressful environment people tend to harden and adapt hence they become intelligent in handling such crimes since they have tactics to escaping such traps. In addition, he argues that it is such criminality is as a result of a specific cerebral state known as hidden delinquency which is obtained from insufficient childhood socialization and establishes itself in the need for instant satisfaction (Piquero, 2016)
Behavioral theory involves on all human characters and behaviors whereby violent behavior is inclusive. This theory explains that conduct is learned through relations with the social setting in which an individual inhabits. Therefore, persons are not congenital a violent temperament but somewhat they learn it and acquire from the experiences they do undergo in the environment they are brought up. These experiences are learnt by observing friends or families who have violent behaviors. On the other hand they can even observe it on the adoration of violence in the mass media. Additionally, these factors also do contribute to forceful behaviors. First, stressful stimulus which results from an assault or threat that intensifies arousal. Secondly, hostile skills learned through others. Thirdly, a value system that tolerates violent acts within a certain social context. Lastly, a belief that hostility will be informally compensated for instance, by enhancing self-esteem, reducing frustration and providing materials that praise of other people (Hagan, 2009)
Cognitive development theory which involves on how persons perceive their communal inhabitants and study how to resolve glitches. The study of crime and violence has ethical and knowledgeable enhancement viewpoint in the cognitive theory. Piaget one of the psychologist argued that people’s thinking and reasoning capabilities do grow in a systematic and reasonable fashion. He continued to argue that throughout the sensor motor stage, children reply well to their communal ecosystem by directing their attention on motivating objects and growing their motor abilities. By the time they reach the final stage i.e the official operations stage they are now mature grownups who are proficient of thinking and having complex thought. Therefore, when people undergo through the six distinct stages of moral development, at first they do obey the law because they are afraid of being punished. But by the time they have reached the final stage they do obey the law since it is an assumed obligation and they believe in the equity, universal principles of justice and respect for others. Moreso, when people makes decisions they do involve a series of information processing. They first encrypt and deduce the info they presented with, then they search for proper reaction and finally act on the decision made (Green &Tony, 2004). Therefore, during processing they may interpret the information wrongly especially violent-prone youth may see people as more threatening than they actually are. Recent research has shown that masculine rapists often have little kindness for their own culprits but they do sympathize with feminine culprits of other sexual offenders. This happens because the way information processing issues in one individual differs from one person to another.
Ideally, the relationship between intelligence and crime has a strong associate with criminal behavior. An individual with low intelligence are much more likely to involve in lawbreaking and violence as compared to great intellect. This is due to the fact that the way they think and do their things differs a lot from high level thinkers hence they are highly susceptible to committing crime. More support on this issue can be seen directly from the IQ scores of teenagers with IQ scores from the overall populace. Additionally, nature theory also holds that intelligence is heritably determined and that low IQ directly causes forceful and criminal behavior. Intelligence is as a product of quality of the communal setting during childhood parenting bond, the nature of native peer relations and the quality of the vicinity institutes (Brun, 2011).
In conclusion psychological theories which involve behavioral, cognitive, intelligence and violence and personality has a great impact on crime of rape. If an individual has all the above qualities of being brought up in well conducive environment, then she will manage to overcome rape at least at high percentage. We should therefore try and train our kids on the preventive measures on the avoidance of this crimes in our society today. Since the way the perceive things has totally changed due to the 21st century digital information which is available in the internet and media. This can be accessed by them and try to practice it hence breaking the law which is governing our societies.
Rafter, Nicole H, and Michelle Brown. Criminology Goes to the Movies: Crime Theory and Popular Culture. New York: New York University, 2011. Internet resource.
Piquero, Alexis R. The Handbook of Criminological Theory. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2016. Internet resource.
Hagan, Frank E. Crime Types and Criminals. , 2009. Print.
Green, Penny, and Tony Ward. State Crime: Governments, Violence and Corruption. London: Pluto Press, 2004. Print.
Brun, Jean-Pierre. Asset Recovery Handbook: A Guide for Practitioners. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 2011. Internet resource.