Artificial intelligence is a technological trend in computer science and technology that incorporates the neuroscience principles in its operations. Artificial intelligence aims at designing machines and systems that mimic human cognitive behavior while retaining their technological designs. The Artificial intelligence borrows the concepts of neural networks from the neuroscience to form the wiring system of the machines formed. The natural neural system has the neurons, special type of cells that forms the communication system of the neural system. Within a nerve cell are three parts that help in the axon, dendrites and the synapses. The artificial intelligence allows machines to learn, make decisions and exhibit human behavioral characters. The application of artificial intelligence is nearly in all fields of economy.
Artificial intelligence (AI) was introduced in 1956 as an academic discipline and suffered insufficient funding and lack of optimism from researchers and stakeholders in the scientific sector (Rubinstein 6). The undermining factor for the development of artificial intelligence in the earlier years was the inability to incorporate the psychological principles in the design of the machines. The primary goal of the AI was to include human reasoning, learning, perception, and natural information processing ability that is succeeded by thinking and decision making in the designing processing of the machines and systems (10). Besides, there was a desire to incorporate in the machines design the human emotional and cognitive intelligence.
According to Greenleaf, Graham, Andrew, and Philip (318), the development of AI has ethical and philosophical arguments on the simulation of human intelligence by machines. There were humanity and psychology concerns the dangers of replacing human beings with machines. Psychological scholars argued that AI was abused by human brain capacity as well as the social structures of human (Lin, Patrick, Keith, and Jenkins 11). The core concerns were raised on the preservation of human structures and dignities. Machines cannot replace the atmosphere created in offices through human relationships (Greenleaf, Graham, Andrew, and Philip 320). During these stages, sociologists also showed their concerns on the respect for human dignity as well as the preservation of the faith, doctrines, and principles protecting humanity (Paula 23). However, the 21st century showed an embrace of the AI in the operations in hospitals, the banking system, and cloud computing. The success of the AI development dependents heavily on the contributions from neuroscience departments, which richly understand the human nervous system, the foundation for the development of AI. Therefore, this paper is aimed at finding the advantages, disadvantages and the future of AI as a dependent of neuroscience in the technological development in the world through a literature review of past studies.
According to Sun et al (20), artificial intelligence offers a new approach and better information handling techniques than conventional computers. The AI systems are based on the learning capability of humans that enables predictions of unlikely occurrences within the system, unlike the conventional computers that operate on microprocessors. The microprocessors such as 8086 series from the Intel, can only work on the already stored information based on a known algorithm installed in the system (Sun et al 9). Besides, they only execute actions depending on the commands given by the operator.
According to Lamb et al (165), the AI offers improved and new interfaces between humans and machines. In the design of the AI system focus is given to the human-machine interfacing as well as the user experience approach. The AI system is designed for applicability and given purposes, for instance, when designing a cancer therapy machine based on AI, the focus will be focused on patient comfortability and practitioners experiences thus minimizing the chances of requiring another linking system for the processing of the information gathered from patients.
AI introduces a new feature in the information and communication sector. The AI offers conversion of information into useful knowledge required from a pool of streams of information within a web of communication. The AI uses the learning experience from the human natural intelligence that I relayed through the nervous system to synthesize the relevant information to a given audience and translates it to knowledge (Makridakis 50). In the weather focus, it is common for an individual who likes traveling across continents to be given the weather pattern predations of the frequently visited places through mobile app automatically without navigating through search engines to realize the same. The pattern is also evident with traders who shop frequently from either given wholesale or retail shops. Such persons are likely to receive notification about new stock arrivals through the internet automatically. The prediction nature that has been introduced by the AI in the world today is beyond the capabilities of conventional computers.
According to Greenleaf et al (318), the AI developers believe that it offers a remedy against information overload witnessed in busy systems today. In the banking system, health care and education system, chunks of information are stored in volumes of terabytes most of which are irrelevant and cannot be used in future decision-making processes. The conventional computers are not able to synthesize the information and synchronize them into relevant and information while discarding chunks of useless data. For example, a diabetes patient who normally Google search relevant articles on healthy living styles to help manage the condition will receive numerous notification on relevant articles to his/her conditions online due to AI. The AI incorporates the behavioral aspect of human beings as well as the neural system into the design of machines.
According to Makridakis (52), AI is the face of future technology in the world. AI incorporation into the system offers a number of problems solving application in nearly in all sectors of the economy. In the sports such as football and basketball, the activities unfold quickly that some escape the officiating personnel leading to fraudulent decisions that sometimes gives victory to the undeserving team. The introduction of the AI will help in real-time monitoring of the games leading to improved decision making.
Additionally, the terrorist menace will be tackled in an improved manner with proper development and inclusion of AI in the security systems. Normally, terrorists such as suicidal bombers carry out their heinous acts fast with the minimal response time from the security personnel. The AI will help the intelligence units of the police in detecting such organized operations through installation AI cameras (Lamb et al. 169). Consequently, in healthcare, lifestyle diseases such as cancer, hypertension and kidney failures will be adequately diagnosed and appropriate therapy offered with the development of AI. Biomedical equipment such as the dialysis machine currently has a little AI incorporated into its system that helps in blood purification of patients.
However, according to Müller, Vincent, and Nick (556) AI as a neuroscience dependent has limitation in its application. AI has psychological and ethical issues in its application. Psychologist and sociologist argue that it is unethical to design a machine to mimic human behaviors, especially where personal and emotional attachments had traditionally existed. For example, the introduction of sex robots face objections from psychologist and sociologist as well as religious leaders due to both psychological and mental effect it will have on human beings. Additionally, AI has few programmers in the world hindering its development. In operations, the AI systems are slow and expensive as well as bulky, unlike conventional computers.
In summary, AI borrows from the neuroscience and psychobiology in its design and operation principles. AI transmission system, the neural network is designed to mimic the nervous system of human beings its operations. Additionally, the psychobiology aspects are incorporated in its learning capability as well as in developing artificial intelligence such as detections of emotions and touch. Notably, the AI has offered improvements in nearly all sectors of the economy such as health care and security docket due to advantages over conventional computers. AI systems offer the prediction and earning capability to the system thus allowing decision-making system. Therefore, the future of technology is on AI which depends on neuroscience for its development.
Boddington, Paula. Towards a code of ethics for artificial intelligence. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2017.
Greenleaf, Graham, Andrew Mowbray, and Philip Chung. “Building sustainable free legal advisory systems: Experiences from the history of AI & law.” Computer Law & Security Review 34.2 (2018): 314-326.
Lamb, G. C., et al. “Invited Review: Advantages of current and future reproductive technologies for beef cattle production.” The Professional Animal Scientist 32.2 (2016): 162-171.
Lin, Patrick, Keith Abney, and Ryan Jenkins, eds. Robot Ethics 2.0: From Autonomous Cars to Artificial Intelligence. Oxford University Press, 2017.
Makridakis, Spyros. “The forthcoming Artificial Intelligence (AI) revolution: Its impact on society and firms.” Futures 90 (2017): 46-60.
Müller, Vincent C., and Nick Bostrom. “Future progress in artificial intelligence: A survey of expert opinion.” Fundamental issues of artificial intelligence. Springer, Cham, 2016. 555-572.
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