Antibiotics Resistance

Over the previous years, antibiotic resistances have been reported as one of the major challenges to the efficacy of antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance reduces the effectiveness or pills or other agents which are meant to prevent or cure infections. Currently, bacterial infections are endangering the lives of many humans due to resistance. As a result, misuse and misuse of antibiotics have been reported. The present clinical and monetary burden in the U.S and other countries all over the world are related with the dangers and threats of antibiotic resistance. Although there are efforts regarding coverage formulation and implementation, the steps are taken to manage the detrimental effects of antibiotic resistance across the globe are encountering many challenges.
Causes of Antibiotic Resistance

Inappropriate Prescription

Approximately 30% t0 50% of cases of antibiotic resistance are associated with incorrect prescription of antibiotics. In most cases, duration of antibiotic therapy, choice of agent, time indication are incorrectly stated. Moreover, more than around 60% of antibiotics prescriptions at the intensive care units are either suboptimal, inappropriate, or unnecessary. Such inappropriate prescriptions expose patients numerous antibiotic therapy complications thereby promoting the development of antibiotic resistance through gene alterations.


Over the past years, scientists have raised concerns about the misuse of antibiotics and its potential effects on the world population. Epidemiological studies have shown the existence of a relationship between antibiotic consumption and emergence of resistant bacteria strains. Moreover, cases of gene transfer have been associated with antibiotic resistance by allowing bacteria to be transferred through gene transfer.

Applications in Agriculture

Both developed and developing countries are finding ways to address pressure from the growing population and increasing livestock and plant diseases. The emergence of genetically modified organizations has led to the use of antibiotics to promote growth, especially in animals. Over 80% of antibiotics that are sold in the United States and other countries are used to induce growth in animals (livestock) thereby increasing yield and quality. Moreover, they are used to prevent infections. Although the move is meant to produce higher yields and prevent infections, they lead to the transfer of bacteria from animals to humans when such animals are consumed. Such bacteria have adverse effects on human health.

Ways to Prevent Antibacterial Resistance

Correct Prescription

Health workers and practitioners are called upon to ensure they correctly and appropriately prescribe antibiotics to patients. There is need to confirm the exact antibiotics required to cure or prevent a given disease through the test. Employing antibiotics where they are appropriately required may help to further infections and resistance. Moreover, record keeping on the uptake of antibiotics is being analyzed to identify countries where abnormalities in consumption exist. Medical practitioners are also sensitizing users to take antibiotics upon prescription. Moreover, adherence to the drugs and completing the full dose will help to prevent the drug-resistant bacterial growth.

Regulation of Antibiotic Use in Agriculture

Farmers are advised to give antibiotics to animals only to control infectious diseases with the supervision of veterinary officers. Since the misuse of antibiotics in crops and livestock are the key contributors to resistance, proper administration of antibiotics on livestock and plants can reduce the prevalence of antibiotic resistance across the world. Regulation on the use of antibiotics on livestock to induce growth and improve yield can help reduce resistance by a significant margin. Moreover, there is need to avoid overcrowding of animals and practice regular vaccinations.

Government Actions

Both developing and developed countries are formulating action plans to address the issue of antibiotic resistance. Moreover, non-governmental organizations are collaborating with government agencies to improve the surveillance the infections resulting from antibiotic resistance. Strict regulations and education on the use of various medicines and misuse are meant to combat antibiotic resistance. Health system strengthening and advocacy especially in low-income countries are geared towards creating awareness and improving access to affordable care.


The emergence of antibiotic-resistant infections is adding economic burden to healthcare systems. The frequent release of new drugs and research on ways to fight antibiotic resistance has more economic costs than benefits. Moreover, organizations that are interested in taking part in research to produce new drugs to fight the resistant bacteria face government bureaucratic process to be approved. With the reducing research on powerful drugs to fight resistance, the adverse effects of antibiotic resistance on health outcomes may become more severe.


Antibiotic resistance is a serious challenge to health policymakers across the globe. The formulation of various policy tools to monitor the use of antibiotics in both developed and low-income countries are geared towards combating antibiotic resistance. Although many counties are striving to implement the recommendations of the World Health Organization, much focus is still needed to ensure misuse of antibiotics is completely eradicated. Better hygiene, access to affordable care, proper health education among the public are measures that can reduce misuse of antibiotics and reduce the rate infection. Addressing the concerns of economic benefit and costs of producing new drugs and the bureaucratic process that potential organizations interested in research on antibiotics undergo will also help to improve the rate of response to resistance.


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Economou, Vangelis, and Panagiota Gousia. “Agriculture and food animals as a source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.” Infection and drug resistance 8 (2015): 49.

Laxminarayan, Ramanan, Adriano Duse, Chand Wattal, Anita KM Zaidi, Heiman FL Wertheim, Nithima Sumpradit, Erika Vlieghe et al. “Antibiotic resistance—the need for global solutions.” The Lancet infectious diseases 13, no. 12 (2013): 1057-1098.

McCullough, A. R., Sanjoti Parekh, John Rathbone, Christopher B. Del Mar, and T. C. Hoffmann. “A systematic review of the public’s knowledge and beliefs about antibiotic resistance.” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 71, no. 1 (2015): 27-33.

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