Annotated Bibliography

Cimbala, Paul A. Under the guardianship of the nation: the Freedmen’s Bureau and the reconstruction of Georgia, 1865-1870. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1997. This book is important in understanding the Freedmen’s Bureau, which Congress established in 1865. The book illustrates how the Freedmen’s Bureau was formed from the federal power expansion during the Civil War and the desire of Union to provide and protect for the emancipated slaves in the South. The Bureau was supposed to change the southern racial “status quo” in civil rights, education, and labor. The Bureau also played a key role in the implementation of Reconstruction policy. The author noted that the Bureau was ineffective especially in Georgia and several southern states and was blamed for the racist northern administrators. The author also blames the failure of Bureau in combining free-labor ideology, temporary nature, and limited resources. Due to these factors, the Freedmen’s Bureau left the ex-masters and freedpeople to establish their own political, social and economic arrangements. I would use the arguments is building the case against racial discrimination in education, jobs and civil rights of blacks and other minority groups in the United States.

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Cimbala, Paul A., and Randall M. Miller. The Freedmen’s Bureau and Reconstruction: Reconsiderations. New York: Fordham University Press, 1999. The author explained the origin of ‘Freedman’s Bureau’ in the reconstruction era. During the Civil War, the Union was aimed at embracing both the revolution wrought and the restoration of order by emancipation made matters worse, more so when it became clear that it would be challenging to accomplish both the justice for blacks and reconciliation with whites in the postwar South. The author argued that the Freedmen’s Bureau proved a disappointment during the civil war and Reconstruction. The author also argued that Republican policymakers were reluctant to institute a far-reaching program of land redistribution and confiscation during the war. It is important to note that the use of military courts, military commissions, and Freedmen’s Bureau protected blacks when local authorities, southern state legislators and civil courts, but proved unwilling to overcome that challenge. This source is important because it shows how Freedmen’s Bureau failed to accomplish a revolution in economic and social relationships between the blacks and whites – a key to understanding the restoration of civil government. I would use these arguments the author made for justice as context for the similar-but-also-different arguments made by the blacks in the text.

Farmer-Kaiser, Mary. Freedwomen and the Freedmen’s Bureau: race, gender, and public policy in the age of emancipation. New York: Fordham University Press, 2010. The author introduces the 1865 Act of Congress which established the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands. The Republican congressmen created his hasty improvisation to prevent mass suffering and starvation, to protect the rights of laborers and the rule of law, while providing the basis for economic peace and health to go back to the South after the Civil War. The author argues that there was huge social crisis that made the bureau to surface as direct result of U.S. policies. The author regarded the bureau’s effort, which was called the “Freedmen’s Bureau” drastically faded with the plight of former slaves and political emancipation success. The book is relevant in understanding the emancipation of African Americans and its importance in our contemporary society.

Finley, Randy. From slavery to uncertain freedom: the Freedmen’s Bureau in Arkansas, 1865-1869. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1996. The author has contributed to the literature regarding the emancipation of African Americans. From the macro-historical point of view, the Freedmen’s Bureau assisted freedpersons to get the rudiments of an education. In those periods, blacks were denied educational privileges and thus, the achievements brought by Freedmen’s Bureau were very impressive. The author contributed to these social and economic aspects of the Bureau – including marriages, racism, land, and agriculture. I would use these arguments in providing educational opportunities for blacks in larger institutions.

Jenkins, Wilbert L. Climbing Up to Glory: A Short History of African Americans During the Civil War and Reconstruction. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2002. Jenkins, who is an associate professor of history, recognizes that the Civil War was an important event in the history of America, especially for African Americans, as their personal liberties were reliant on its outcome. Jenkins describes this defining historic period that covered the emancipation journey of African Americans struggling to restore their lives after the abolition of slavery. The author also explores the inner strength and unflagging determination of blacks as they attempted to reconstruct their economic base by establishing businesses and own their land. The author also depicts the racial violence and other challenges the African Americans endured in their quest to air their voice through political participation. The source contributes to the growing literature of African-American history and their struggle to recover from slavery. I would use the arguments of unflagging determination that the blacks had in the context of dealing with life challenges.

 

Bibliography

Cimbala, Paul A. Under the guardianship of the nation: the Freedmen’s Bureau and the reconstruction of Georgia, 1865-1870. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1997

Cimbala, Paul A., and Randall M. Miller. The Freedmen’s Bureau and Reconstruction: Reconsiderations. New York: Fordham University Press, 1999.

Farmer-Kaiser, Mary. Freedwomen and the Freedmen’s Bureau: race, gender, and public policy in the age of emancipation. New York: Fordham University Press, 2010

Finley, Randy. From slavery to uncertain freedom: the Freedmen’s Bureau in Arkansas, 1865-1869. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1996.

Jenkins, Wilbert L. Climbing Up to Glory: A Short History of African Americans During the Civil War and Reconstruction. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2002