Nearly a century ago, there was a significant segment of African-Americans who were poor and mistreated, who were divided along racial lines, and who were typically regarded as second-class citizens in America. They were not granted full citizenship rights in America, which ignited a wave of civil rights protests. This study shows how the protests aided black people in obtaining their rights and how they have continued to fight for fair terms for civil servants and other oppressed groups in the United States. Using both the primary and secondary sources the study shows how these movements made bold steps that made the whole world to get information of the inhuman acts that were taking place in America. The study will show how these movements helped in the amendment of laws that led to the abolition of slaves and awarding of full citizenship to the blacks. The study also captures how the modern civil rights movement has continued in advocating for reforms in different sectors in the states.
Keywords: Civil rights movement, reforms, mistreated, primary and secondary sources
America Civil Rights Movement
Civil rights movement also referred to as the America Civil Rights Movement is a movement that was hatched as a result of the continuous violation of human rights in the US. It was made up of groups, social movements, and strategies whose main agendum was to stop mistreatment and injustices inflicted on the African-American population in the US. The movement was driven by the urge to end racial segregation and discrimination in the country. In addition, they were also advocating for the legal recognition as stipulated the constitution and federal law. Their rights as full citizens of the state were not recognized like other Americans and they were treated like second-hand citizens (Tindall & Shi, 2016).
The movement passed its agendum through civil resistance, nonviolent acts and civil disobedience between 1955 and 1968. These activities led to a crisis situation in the States and productive dialogues between the government agencies and business persons, the federal state, and local communities responding to the inequalities in which these groups of Americans were treated to. Therefore various forms of nonviolent protests and boycotts proceeded. There were conducted in groups but this gained pace that leaders such as Malcolm X, Martin Luther King Jnr, Andrew Goodman, Rosa Parks and others rose to prominence due to some extreme ways they used as individuals that caused worldwide stir into actions of these people (Chong, 2014). However, with time the civil rights movement gained a massive boost when black, American soldiers returned from war determined to fight for their rights. End of racial segregation and discrimination in public facilities such as hospitals, schools, public vehicles, bus stops. They spearheaded violations of these laws that barred them from sharing these amenities with the whites; as a result, a number of them were arrested while others lost their lives in this struggle.
The present study is aimed at examining the literature on America Civil Rights Movement. More so, the study will only delve into handling the knowledge on the topic and the method used in the study.
The violation of human rights, especially the African-American populations in America has been well documented by various scholars. In this regard, the civil movements that spearheaded the restoration of these rights have also been recognized all over the world by various historians, philosophers, and scholars. In this recognition, there has been also well documentation on means these civil movements used in advocating for human rights. However, there has been limited information on the clear number of deaths that occurred during these peaceful protests that took more than four decades.
Estes (2015), explains how the activities of civil movements at Charleston were not well documented, he says that this was largely due to the absence in public protests and extreme racial segregation in the town. However, he says that the impact the movement had on the city and the state at large, led to profound positive changes that had not been felt before the uprising of the movement in Charleston. Jeffries in his book he highlights majorly on what has changed and on what has not changed since the movement peaked up. He illustrates by comparing the race and social class in local politics, education, policing and employment of the locals in the locals facilities.
Additionally, Ling & Monlieth (2014) in their book “Women in Civil Rights Movement”, illustrated on how the women played a major role in civil movements that arose to fight for the rights of African-American. The two argued that the black women organized and championed for the abolition of laws such as ant lynching, tax payment and also advocated for equal rights in employment for them and their husbands. The authors also tell us how the women led interracial movements in the early 20th century in order to reduce racial segregation and mistreatment of black Americans. Besides that, the women struggled for suffrage, temperance, fair housing and equal rights in using public amenities, for example, Rosa Park she single-handedly starts the boycott of standing to allow the white seat in the vehicles or at any public facility.
Button (2014), shows the relationship between the black Americans and the nature of treatment they received from the white. The source aimed at examining the massive changes that took place in day to day lives of the blacks in America. Button recorded the events that took place with the uprising of the civil rights movement, the public protests and the final impact of these events have taken place from 1955-1968. He shows how the civil movement led to better lives being witnessed by the locals for once. The life with no barriers to either one being a black or a Caucasian, freedom to educate their kids, use all public means, vote and generally use all public amenities just like any American citizen. The author indicates that to these African-American population second liberation had been achieved.
Besides that, Lawsen (2014), in his book illustrated the progress achieved in terms of African-American involvement in politics. He talks how the blacks were allowed to vote and those with political interests allowed contesting for public offices. He that the civil movement that the blacks into a grant entry in the local and state politics did not help much as most of the problems faced by the locals had solutions in the national politics not local. Lawsen wrote that the problems that plagued African-American population ranged from chronic unemployment, inflation, inadequate housing to inadequate medical facilities in their local areas of residence. He suggested that unless their grievances were addressed in the national politics their fate will always remain the same. However, he further suggested that the African-American population and their close white allies had an obligation to raise their concern in the national government.
The present research aims at obtaining the acknowledgment of civil rights movement in today’s African-American population. The answers will guide the current civil rights movements in advocating for changes in the prevailing situations of those regions inhabited by the black people. Therefore, an open-ended questionnaire shall be designed containing questions to the veterans who had participated in the early 1950s to late 1960s protests. Additionally, email questionnaire shall be sent to some individuals containing questions on the issues they feel should be changed in the current society. Besides that, the two types of questionnaire shall contain the general reason for conducting research on the current African-American population. Confidential forms shall also be in the provision and attached to the questionnaire in order to guarantee the respondents the privacy and anonymity of their participation in the research.
The first question shall address the general impacts the civil rights movements had on the current generation. This is important so as for us to know the attitude of the current generation of the civil rights movements by then. In addition, the question also helps us to know if the rights fought for by the prominent civil rights advocates like Rosa Park, Malcolm X, Martin Jnr and Andrew Goodman have been initiated, implemented and are still being enjoyed by their generations. The second question will then address the current issues affecting the current generation that were not there during the protests by the civil rights movement. This is to help get information on the employment of the locals in the current public offices, the situation in public and social amenities and involvement of the African-American population in both local and national politics. Also, the question also seeks to get to the bottom line of the causes of the current issues that affect them. Finally, the third question will address the relationship between the blacks and the whites in the region. This is also important as it answers the question of possible hatred between the two races which may one day lead to clashes between the two.
In addition, we shall also use secondary sources, especially literature on obtaining what has been studied previously on the civil rights movements in America. The obtained data shall aid in making the judgment on the progress that has been made since such research was done till today. The analysis shall use Google Scholar and PubMed in obtaining all relevant information related to the activities of civil rights movement. The relevance of the data shall be obtained by using a set criterion on the search machines. An inclusion criterion shall also be set to ensure that the most precise data is obtained. Therefore, the articles to be used in this research shall be empirical and concise to studies showing the relevance of the activities of the civil rights movement and their achievements.
This research shall target both male and female participants of the civil rights movements in the early 1950s to late 1960s who are still alive. This shall help us get the first-hand information on the ways they implemented to win for their rights. The injustices they were made to pass through and what ignited them initially to arise and fight for their rights. The second target shall be the current generation which has been born in the modern era and changes put in place.
Civil rights movements shall be applauded for standing for the weak and marginalized groups in the society. As such prominent people like Martin Jnr, Rose Park and other prominent individuals that stood against all odds to defend what was just for the black American population should always be emulated whenever we making decisions that race should not be a determinant of who you are or you will be in the society. Besides, that civil rights movement made it clear that the right for the change in the society lies within our jurisdiction, that the society can make it happen without involving violent means. Finally, all humans are equal and all rights should be given to them as stipulated in the federal government and the constitution, no race is better than the other, and we are entitled to own property at any corner of America.
Button, J. W. (2014). Blacks and social change: Impact of the civil rights movement in southern communities. Princeton University Press.
Chong, D. (2014). Collective action and the civil rights movement. University of Chicago Press.
Estes, S. (2015). Charleston in Black and White: Race and Power in the South after the Civil Rights Movement. UNC Press Books.
Ling, P. J., & Monteith, S. (Eds.). (2014). Gender in the Civil Rights Movement. Routledge.
Lawson, S. F. (2014). Running for freedom: Civil rights and black politics in America since 1941. John Wiley & Sons.
Tindall, G. B., & Shi, D. E. (2016). America: A narrative history. WW Norton & Company.