Attention deficit or hyperactivity disorder is associated with poor reading, poor grades, math test scores are standardized and the grade intention increased. ADHD is also greatly associated with increase in the school based services use, rates of expulsion and detention are increased and in the end the chances and rate of the child or youth completing post-secondary education and graduating are very low. Community samples have shown that children that show symbols and signs of hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity without or with formal ADHD diagnoses almost always show poor educational and academic outcomes. Children encountering problem in school is a great feature of AHD and it most times bring the child that is affected with the disorder to clinical attention. It is very important and crucial to establish the severity, condition, persistence and nature of these difficulties in school for children with attention deficit or hyperactivity disorder. It also becomes critical to understand how different treatments are in a position to affect the child’s educational and academic outcomes.
Significance of the issue
According to physicians and clinical officers, ADHD is evident of having a significant change and impact on the lives of the patient. It is mostly considered to compose of three features that include impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention with the combination and severity of symptoms varying and being different among and across the lifespan of a patient. ADHD is a neurobehavioral disorder that is common among children and it affects up to 11 percent of children hat are aged between 4 and 17 years have been diagnosed. For a child to be clinically diagnosed with ADHD, a young adolescent of child needs to meet more than six out of the nine symptoms that are possibly inattentive (Rovira et al., 2019). The symptoms also need to be seen for at least six months, it be before he child is above twelve years and the disorder cannot be explained in any other form of disorder. Psych stimulants are seen to be effective in improving sustained attention, improving activity levels, reducing impulsive behaviors and reducing distractibility. Non pharmacologic therapies that include psychotherapy, complementary, psychosocial interventions, alternative medicine interventions and behavioral therapy either alone or together with medication management, they most times are able to address crucial symptoms of ADHD as well as the long term disorder that are possible to be associated with the disorder. It is an important problem for the clinicians to help in improving the diagnosis and improvement of patients that are suffering with this disorder.
Reasons for problem selection
The diagnosis and management of ADHD is very crucial for all the patients involved. It I important that the affected patients to receive the right and most effective treatment of ADHD in all stages of their lives. In the demand to find and answer the most effective solution, some key questions must be risen and try to be answered. Some of the questions include: Identifying what are the accurate approaches for comparative diagnosis that can be used by the specialists or by the primary care practice settings for ADHD to be diagnosed among children between the age of seven and seventeen (Fibert et al., 2016). Identifying the accuracy of comparative diagnosis of EEG, approaches and imaging assessing executive function which can be used in the diagnosis process of the children with ADHD symbols. Other question is how the accuracy of the approaches for comparative diagnosis vary by clinical setting including specialty clinic, primary care or subgroup of patients like their sex, age or other risk factors that are associated with the disorder. There is also the question on the existing adverse effects that are associated with being labeled or diagnosed with ADHD or not. It is important too to answer the question on what some of the comparative effectiveness and safety of pharmacologic treatment of ADHD in the outcomes especially those associated with the disorder being improved. It is also important to evaluate the comparative effectiveness and safety of different strategies of monitoring to be able to effectively evaluate the effectiveness of the changes and treatment of ADHD. Other important questions to ask is what the educational and academic characteristic of a child with ADHD is and whether the educational and academic problems are persistent or transient.
By the use of the ICF framework, it is seen that treatments can be evaluated in definition of whether the body functions improve which include sustained attention, memory, affect activities, intelligence or executive functions that include increased leaning and knowledge applications (Pickering & Nie, 2016): Such as the standardized grades or test scores raising in writing, mathematics and reading, as well as improving completing and attending to tasks or improved participation that include moving across different educational level, acquiring success in the educational programs and being able to transition successfully from school to work.
There exist several treatment or nursing interventions that can help get rid of the disorder or improve the condition of the patient diagnosed with ADHD and improve their educational and academic performance. One major intervention is the use of medical treatments. The main form of treatment is the psychopharmacological treatments especially which give the stimulant medications, greatly minimized the core symptoms of ADHD at the body functions level (Ünal, 2019). The use of psychopharmacological treatments is evident over time from different patients to help in improving the ability of the child to handle general demands and tasks. The major area that shows sufficient results is the ability of the medication being able to improve the child’s academic productivity which is evident from the students note taking skills improving, scores on worksheets and quizzes increasing, increase in amount of output in the written language and them being able to complete home works.
Despite the medical treatment, to improve the children diagnosed with ADHD state, there are other interventions that can be put in place. They include: behavioral management of ADHD. It involves behavioral classroom intervention, behavioral parent training, response cost contingencies and positive reinforcement. Thou this intervention is not seen to have as much improvement as the medical treatment, it is important to incorporate it in reducing core symptoms of the disorder. Combined management of ADHD and educational services and interventions are other forms of interventions that can be taken to minimize the disorder that comes with ADHD. The proof that ADHD is associated with poor school grades, poor academic outcomes and performances is overwhelming. Being able to offer a solution will greatly help those involved especially children diagnosed who mostly fall between the ages of 5 to 17. Treatments is seen to relatively narrow increase and improvements in core symptoms of impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention at the level of body functions and completing and attending to tasks at the levels of the activities. There is therefore continued need for improved form of treatments that will guarantee the child’s health improvement and enable them study effectively with great or improved educational and academic results that will help them later to transition from students to corporate workers in the society.
Fibert, P., Relton, C., Heirs, M., & Bowden, D. (2016). A comparative consecutive case series of 20 children with a diagnosis of ADHD receiving homeopathic treatment, compared with 10 children receiving usual care. Homeopathy, 105(02), 194-201.
Pickering, N., & Nie, J. B. (2016). Transcultural ADHD and Bioethics: Reformulating a Doubly Dichotomized Debate. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 26(3), 249-275.
Rovira, P., Demontis, D., Sánchez-Mora, C., Zayats, T., Klein, M., Mota, N. R., … & Arribas, L. (2019). Shared genetic background between children and adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. bioRxiv, 589614.
Ünal, A. (2019). The Impact of Relative Age Effect on Mathematics Achievement. International Education Studies, 12(6), 39-55.